Interesting

Echinopsis

Echinopsis


The Echinopsis plant is a representative of the Cactus family. This name can be translated as "like a hedgehog" - it was invented by Carl Linnaeus, who compared the representatives of the genus with a curled up hedgehog. This genus of cacti includes more than a hundred species, many of which are very common in home floriculture. In nature, Echinopsis live on the South American continent and are found on the territory of many states.

Today, of all the variety of Cactus, Echinopsis are considered one of the most popular types used for home decoration. These plants were finally domesticated in the middle of the 19th century, and to date, a large number of their hybrid forms with flowers of various colors have been bred. They are found on sale more often than species plants.

Description of echinopsis

Young echinopsis have a spherical shape, but as they develop, they stretch upward and begin to take the shape of a cylinder. Such a cactus is gradually able to achieve human growth and even surpass it. Its stems are smooth, shiny, with symmetrical sharp edges. Lateral stalks rarely appear. The color of the stem can vary from dark to light green. The root system is powerful enough, but shallow. Areoles with hard spines are equidistant from each other.

The size of the thorns may differ from species to species; it can be very small or several centimeters. Their shape can be straight or curved. During the flowering period, funnel-shaped flowers with a diameter of up to 15 cm and a length of about 30 cm are formed on the stem. They have 7 rows of petals and are located on a pubescent tube. The buds develop from areoles located in the middle of the stem. The color of the relatively narrow petals includes shades of white, red, yellow and orange, as well as pink and purple. Some species give off a rather strong and pleasant smell. In some Echinopsis, flowers open in the daytime, in the rest - at night. The number of buds depends on the age of the cactus (the older the plant, the more abundantly it can bloom), as well as the conditions in which it is kept. Adult specimens are able to form up to 25 flowers at a time, but each of them stays on the plant for only up to 3 days. The lifespan of each flower is influenced by external factors - especially temperature. After flowering, juicy fruits are formed, which contain shiny black seeds.

In nature, Echinopsis often form islet groups, formed thanks to the children growing to the sides.

Echinopsis subdenudatus. Echinopsis cactus care.

Brief rules for growing echinopsis

The table shows brief rules for caring for echinopsis at home.

Lighting levelThe plant requires the bright sun of the southern windows.
Content temperatureDuring growth - at least 20 degrees, by autumn the temperature can be lowered to 8-10 degrees, but the lighting should not decrease.
Watering modeThe soil in the pot is moistened when it is about half dry. In winter, in a cool place, the cactus is not watered at all or watered very rarely and little by little.
Air humidityNormal room humidity is fine for a cactus.
The soilFor growing echinopsis, a ready-made substrate for cacti or a neutral soil is suitable.
Top dressingFrom March to October, once a month, you can feed the plants with special complex compounds. No feeding is carried out in autumn and winter.
TransferYoung cacti should be replanted annually, adults - 2-3 times less often. Too old specimens are no longer touched, but simply every spring they replace the upper 5 cm of soil with them.
BloomFlowering occurs in the spring and can sometimes last up to six months.
Dormant periodThe dormant period begins in mid-autumn and lasts until the end of February.
ReproductionChildren, seeds.
PestsSpider mite.
DiseasesDecay.

Echinopsis care at home

The subtleties of growing echinopsis practically do not differ from caring for other similar plants. Echinopsis are unpretentious and are able to spend a long time without watering and other attention from the owner. But for healthy development and full flowering, they still need certain conditions.

Lighting

Echinopsis needs bright lighting all year round. The plant is practically not afraid of direct sun and feels great on southern windows even in summer. The exception is too scorching rays in the daytime - for this period, the pot with echinopsis can be slightly shaded. In the warm season, you can transfer the cactus to the air - to the balcony or to the garden. But during the period of active development, it is too often not worth disturbing the flower - it should be turned to the light with one side. Cacti are especially sensitive to this in the budding or flowering phase. It is not recommended to turn or move the pot with them.

If Echinopsis has been in a semi-shady room for a long time, it should be transferred to the light gradually. Otherwise, burn marks may appear on the surface of the stem, which appear in the form of brown spots. In case of insufficient lighting in winter, additional lighting can be used. Lamps are installed half a meter above the cactus.

Temperature

During the growth period - in spring and summer - echinopsis should be in a warm corner, where it keeps at least 20 degrees. Starting in October, when the dormant period begins for the cactus, it is recommended to gradually lower the temperature in the room with it to 8-10 degrees or move the pot to cool. But the flower should remain in a bright place. The cactus will appreciate a regular supply of fresh air, although it must be protected from drafts.

Watering

Echinopsis should be watered during the phase of its active development - from March to October. Overdrying the plant tolerates waterlogging more easily, so watering is carried out when the soil in the pot dries out at least half. You can check this with a thin wooden stick. By sticking it into the ground and pulling it out, you can understand whether the soil at its end was wet. You can also just wait about 2-3 days after the topsoil has dried. For irrigation, well-settled or filtered water at room temperature is used.

Starting from October, the number of irrigations and their volume are significantly reduced, holding them no more than once a month. Sometimes during this period, cacti are not watered at all.

Humidity level

It is not required to moisten the surface of the stems from the sprayer neither in winter nor in summer - such plants perceive well the usual level of humidity in the room, they are not afraid even of the proximity of the batteries. The ability to transfer dry air to Echinopsis is provided by a tough, as if waxed skin. An exception is made for those cases when too much dust accumulates on the cactus. You can arrange a warm shower for such a plant, cleaning it with a soft brush or brush, but the ground should be covered with a film before water procedures. After washing, the cactus should be dried in the shade and only then returned to a sunny place.

The soil

For growing echinopsis, a ready-made substrate for cacti or a self-created mixture of a neutral reaction is suitable. It should be loose and breathable. It can be composed of sand and leafy soil, a double piece of turf, and half of a piece of fine gravel. Experts recommend adding charcoal to the finished soil - it can prevent the development of putrefactive processes.

Top dressing

In their natural environment, Echinopsis grow on poor soils, so excess nutrients can be harmful to them. But home plants, constrained by a pot, are still fed moderately. Echinopsis begins to fertilize after the end of the dormant period, from March. Top dressing is applied once a month. For this, special formulations for cactus or succulent plants are suitable in the recommended dosage. For a dormant period - from October to spring - they stop fertilizing the bushes.

Transfer

Cactus transplant Echinopsis Oksigona

Adult, mature specimens of Echinopsis do not need to be frequently changed in capacity, they are transplanted only when the roots of the cactus become too cramped in the old place. Transplants are carried out no more than once every 2 or 3 years, when the roots of the plant fill the topsoil or begin to peep through the drainage holes. Without timely movement and in the absence of fertilizing, they will begin to lose their decorative effect and grow rustic. Adults and large cacti do not need to be touched at all - just replace the top 5 cm of soil in their pot about once a year. Younger specimens need to be changed every year, it is carried out in March.

For echinopsis, a low and wide capacity is suitable. The roots of such cacti are horizontal and do not go to great depths. A drainage layer of expanded clay is laid at the bottom of the pot. After that, the cactus is pulled out of the old container, transferring it to a new pot along with a soil lump. In order not to be pricked, you should protect your hands with thick gloves, and wrap the cactus itself in several layers of paper. The voids are filled with fresh soil, and then lightly tamped. After transplanting, the cactus should be protected from direct sun for the first time. At the same time, the next watering is not carried out immediately, but after about a week - this will insure the plant against root rot.

Bloom

Despite the short life span, the buds and flowers of Echinopsis are highly decorative. Its flowers are often large and have a pleasant aroma, but they appear only if all the rules for caring for the plant are observed.

If a cactus does not want to bloom, you should check what conditions it is in, and whether they make mistakes in caring for it. Flowering may depend on compliance with the conditions of a warm (above 20 degrees) summer and a cool winter - during this period, the temperature can range from 5 to 10 degrees. A cactus needs bright lighting throughout the year; without it, it will not bloom either. Echinopsis weakened by putrefactive processes will also not form buds.

Children are capable of taking away strength from an adult plant. Their presence often inhibits flowering, so the daughter shoots should be separated and planted in a timely manner.

Echinopsis breeding methods

For reproduction of home echinopsis, you can use its seeds or baby shoots.

Growing from seeds

Seed propagation is not practiced as often, as it takes longer and requires prior purchase of seeds or pollination of your own Echinopsis. At the same time, it is seed reproduction that allows you to get the strongest and most abundant flowering cacti.

To obtain high-quality seed, you will need two different plants (the mother bush and the baby taken from it will not work). You can also try to pollinate Echinopsis with other cactus species blooming at the same time. If desired, you can store its pollen in the refrigerator - its pollination properties disappear a couple of months after collection.

Echinopsis seeds are large enough to germinate. Before sowing, cactus seeds should be held in warm water until they swell. You can also use a disinfecting solution (potassium permanganate or hydrogen peroxide in a weak concentration). A shallow container is used for sowing. It is filled with moist soil, including charcoal, leafy earth and sand in equal proportions. A light peat-sand mixture is also suitable. It is advisable to pre-disinfect the soil. Seeds are sown in the substrate, laid out on the surface, and the container is covered with glass or foil. Crops should be in a warm (about +20) and bright place. They are ventilated every day, and, if necessary, moistened. Condensation forming on the shelter should be removed. With the appearance of round green seedlings (after about 1-3 weeks), the film is removed. When the first hairy spines appear on the sprouts, cacti can be dived into small separate cups. The pick is carried out with tweezers, transferring the seedlings along with a small lump of soil. This procedure increases the rate of their growth, although the shoots of Echinopsis usually develop rather quickly without it.

Department of children

Adult bushes are capable of forming babies, which are easily used for plant propagation. Spring is considered the best time to transplant them.

The shoot can not be cut off, but simply carefully unscrewed from the cactus, having previously protected your hands. Places of scrap are sprinkled with crushed coal or wood ash. Having separated such a baby, it should be dried in the air for at least a day in order to allow the cut to drag on. When a film forms on it, the scion is placed in its own pot filled with wet sand. The baby is lightly pressed into the substrate and propped up with a match or other suitable object so that it does not fall. It usually takes a couple of weeks to root. You can then move the young cactus into soil more suitable for growing it.

At the same time, it is believed that cacti obtained from children bloom less often than seedlings. A long period of vegetative propagation weakens the decorative qualities of long-cultivated plants. Such cacti form more babies and fewer flowers, and also become more susceptible to various diseases. However, with proper care, echinopsis obtained in this way can begin to form flowers after about 3 years.

Bush rejuvenation

Like most cacti, Echinopsis does not need pruning, but such a procedure will help rejuvenate older, overgrown plant specimens. Usually, this pruning is combined with the breeding process. The top of the stem of the old cactus is carefully cut off with a sharp instrument and left to air dry for about a couple of weeks. Then the separated part is placed in wet sand. The old cactus remaining in the pot should form young growth soon after such a procedure.

Pests and diseases

Possible diseases

Echinopsis is highly resistant to diseases and pests. Most often, problems with it happen due to non-observance of the correct watering regime. Stagnant water in the soil can lead to decay of the roots and stem of the plant. On cacti weakened by excessive watering, other diseases can develop, including rust, late blight or spotting.

At the first signs of rot, it is necessary to pull the cactus out of the ground and cut out all affected parts with a sharp and sterile instrument. The sections are treated with a fungicide, and then dried and the plant is transplanted into fresh soil, trying to replace the maximum of the old soil. To prevent the development of rot, it is necessary to water the cactus rarely and little by little in the warm season, and not to spill it at all during the cold season, during the rest period. If the cactus is accidentally waterlogged, you should wait a longer period before watering again.

Pests

Sometimes Echinopsis becomes the habitat of the spider mite. This pest prefers low air humidity, therefore, it often infects cacti, feeding on their juice. At the same time, the plant is covered with a thin cobweb. A small number of ticks can be removed from echinopsis using folk remedies, for example, soap solution. Before processing, the soil should be covered with a film, and half an hour after applying the solution, wash the cactus under warm water. If soap does not help, echinopsis is sprayed with a solution of acaricide. It is recommended to choose less toxic drugs, as well as to carry out procedures for processing in the air.

Types of echinopsis with photos and names

Most often, on the windowsills, you can find a variety of hybrids of Echinopsis obtained through crossing, but sometimes there are also species cacti among them.Some of the most popular varieties in home gardening include the following:

Echinopsis sharp-edged (Echinopsis oxygona)

Globular cactus of rich green color. Echinopsis oxygona has up to 14 ribs with rounded edges. The size of the bush in diameter ranges from 5 to 25 cm. The surface of the stems is covered with light fleecy areoles. They have central spines in the form of needles. They also have a light color, and their number reaches 15 pieces. The flowers reach 22 cm in length and can be pink or reddish in color. The fruits are green in color and up to 4 cm long with a diameter of up to 2 cm.

Echinopsis eyriesii

This species is distinguished by a ribbed stem that has a dark green color. The ribs of Echinopsis eyriesii are covered with areoles, on which there are medium-sized balls of light silvery down and several short subulate spines. Such echinopsis is capable of forming many processes on the side of the stem. The length of the flowers reaches 25 cm. The palette of their colors includes tones of white and pink. In some cases, there may be a dark pink stripe in the middle of the petals. The flowers open at night, but they can remain on the stem even on a cool, cloudy day.

Echinopsis tubiflora (Echinopsis tubiflora)

Argentine endemic species. Young specimens are spherical, but as they develop, they turn into a cylinder. Echinopsis tubiflora has about a dozen distinct, deep ribs. Areolas can be black, gray, or white. The spines are yellowish in color with darker tips. Each areola has about 3-4 median spines up to 3.5 cm long, as well as about 20 smaller (up to 2.5 cm) radial spines. The length of the funnel-shaped flowers reaches 25 cm with a diameter of up to 10 cm. The corolla is white in color, and there is ashy pubescence on the tube. A pleasant smell comes from the flowers.

Echinopsis hook-nosed (Echinopsis ancistrophora)

This cactus has a small spherical stem that is flattened at both the top and bottom. In Echinopsis ancistrophora, it reaches 8 cm in diameter. The stem is covered with ribs with noticeable bulges. Light areoles form up to a dozen light-colored radial spines. They are bent in different directions. There is usually only one central spine, its length reaches 2 cm. It has a brown color and a hooked crown. On a small stem of such a cactus, these needles seem rather large.

Flowers can form on the side of the stem. They bloom during the day, but do not smell at all. The flower is about 15 cm long. Its color is red, orange, white or pink. The fruits are greenish or purple in color. Their width is about 1 cm and a length of about 1.5 cm.

Echinopsis golden (Echinopsis aurea)

The species lives only in some Argentine provinces. Young specimens of this species have spherical stems, which gradually begin to stretch upward and turn into a cylinder. Echinopsis aurea can be up to 10 cm in height and about 5 cm in diameter. The stem is deep green and covered with a waxy coating. It has up to 15 clear and high ribs. They are covered with areoles with a brownish downy. In the center of each areola, up to 4 spines, about 3 cm long, are formed. On the sides there are up to 10 needles of 1 cm each. This species can form abundant basal shoots. In summer, bell flowers up to 8 cm in diameter are formed on the central or lower half of the stem. They have a perianth covered with bristly pubescence and pointed yellow-orange petals. After flowering, oval fruits are tied.

Echinopsis huascha (Echinopsis huascha)

Hybrid form with dark green stems. Echinopsis huascha can have straight or curved stems. Their height can be both half a meter and almost a meter with a diameter of about 5-8 cm. Near the base, the stems begin to branch. Each has about 12-18 ribs covered with light brown pubescent areoles. Each areola bears 1-2 thin median spines up to 6 cm long and about a dozen shorter lateral needles up to 4 cm long. During flowering, flowers about 7-10 cm long are formed on the upper part of the stems, located on shortened tubes. Their coloration includes tones of red and yellow and can be quite bright. The fruits are also red or yellow in color, their diameter is about 3 cm.

Echinopsis white-flowered (Echinopsis leucantha)

Such a cactus has gray-green stems, which are a sphere or a shortened cylinder up to 12 cm in diameter. The height of Echinopsis leucantha can reach about 35 cm. Each stem has up to 14 blunt and bumpy ribs. Slightly elongated areoles are light yellow in color. They have up to 10 radial yellow-brown spines up to 2.5 cm long and one median needle that bends upwards. Its length can be up to 10 cm. The species forms snow-white flowers with petals arranged in several tiers. They appear in the upper half of the stem. The length of each flower can reach 20 cm. Fruits are round, burgundy.

Echinopsis mamillosa (Echinopsis mamillosa)

Such echinopsis has neat flattened stems of a dark green color. Its height is about 13 cm. On the stem of Echinopsis mamillosa, there are about 15 pointed deep ribs with distinct tubercles. Rounded areoles form up to 4 central needles with brown tips. Their length reaches only 1 cm, and the radial spines in the form of an awl have the same size. The spines are yellowish. The flowers bloom at night, they are slightly curved and funnel-shaped. They can be pink or white with pinkish edges on the petals. The flower is about 15 cm long and about 8 cm wide. Fruits are spherical.

Echinopsis multiplex

The spherical stems of Echinopsis multiplex expand at the base, and their height reaches 15 cm. There are up to 15 ribs on the stem. On them are areoles covered with white fluff. Each of them grows up to 5 central needles up to 4 cm long and no more than 15 radial needles 2 times smaller in size. They are light yellow in color. Flowers of white-pink color are very fragrant, their diameter reaches 15 cm.

Echinopsis subdenudata

Or almost naked, half-naked. The unusual name Echinopsis subdenudata is associated with the almost complete absence of thorns on its surface - their number is small, and the size is only a couple of millimeters. This miniature cactus with light pubescent areoles is often used in flower arrangements. In spring, it forms large white flowers - the length of the tube is about 20 cm. They bloom in the morning and stay on the plant for about a day.

Echinopsis grusonii (Echinopsis grusonii)

Mexican look. Echinopsis grusonii has a green glossy stem that gradually turns from a ball into a kind of barrel. In height and width, such a cactus can grow up to 1 m.Under optimal conditions, it does not form a daughter shoot and does not begin to bush. Adult specimens have up to 40 pointed ribs, densely covered with pubescent areoles. As they approach the top of the stem, the areoles begin to merge, forming a kind of "cap" of a light yellow hue. Each areola has about 4 central spines up to 5 cm long and about a dozen radial needles about 4 cm in size. They have a golden color and stand out beautifully against the background of the dark green stem. Because of this feature, the species is also known as the "golden ball" and "golden barrel".

In late spring or at the very beginning of summer, on the crown of an adult (at least 20 years old) cactus, whose thickness is at least 40 cm, single yellow flowers with a diameter of up to 5 cm and a length of about 7 cm are formed.The tubes of the flowers are covered with tomentose pubescence, and the flowers themselves have elongated petals with golden brown tops.


Echinopsis - gardening

The family of melastoma. Homeland Africa, about. Madagascar, Islands of the Malay Archipelago. This plant, which is demanding in terms of growing conditions, has not become widespread among flower growers, but is loved by connoisseurs of exotic plants. In nature, about 400 species of the genus Medinilla are known, represented by shrubs and vines, only one species is widespread in culture. This is Medinilla magnificent Medinilla magnifica - a large shrub up to 2 m tall. Woody shoots have a tetrahedral shape, leaves are large, oppositely located, up to 30 cm long, oval in shape. The surface of the leaf is smooth, dark green above, with lighter veins, slightly wavy along the edge. The underside of the leaf is lighter. Pink flowers are collected in a multi-flowered racemose inflorescence. The inflorescences drooping, can reach half a meter in length, have large pink bracts.

Temperature: It develops well only in warmth, the optimum temperature is 22-23 ° C, not lower than 16 ° C in winter. Does not tolerate drafts and sudden temperature changes.

Lighting: Shade from direct sunlight in summer, good lighting in winter. Medinilla is a shade-tolerant plant, but enough light is needed for good flowering.

Watering: Abundant during flowering in spring - early summer, then from mid-summer to early autumn - moderate, in winter during dormancy - more rare, only after the soil is thoroughly dry. For irrigation, use only soft, well-settled water at room temperature or warm.

Fertilizer: From March to July every two weeks they are fed with a special fertilizer for flowering indoor plants.

Air humidity: Medinilla loves very humid air, regular spraying and washing of leaves is required. The optimum air humidity is 80-90%. Try to avoid getting water when spraying on flowers.

Transfer: In the spring - in March, when the pot becomes small. Soil - a commercial mixture for epiphytes or a mixture of 3 parts of leafy soil, 1 part of peat and 1 part of sand, and you can also add chopped sphagnum moss. Good drainage is a must.

Reproduction: In spring, when transplanting, cuttings are cut, which are rooted using phytohormones and with soil heating to 30 ° C.

When to remove tomatoes from bushes
In caring for tomatoes, the main thing is to accelerate the ripening of the set fruits and protect them from decay. To do this, you must continue to remove the newly appearing stepsons, excess leaves, be sure to pinch the tops of all fruiting shoots, remove the flower brushes., On which the fruits have no time to form. In low-growing varieties of tomato, the brushes with fruits should be turned towards the sun. It is also not bad in the period from August 11, in addition to all the main dressings, to additionally feed the tomatoes: dilute 1 tablespoon of urea, superphosphate and sous in 10 liters of water.

Watering systems
The most convenient and practical for the purpose of carrying out stationary wiring in the garden area are polypropylene pipes. They are distinguished by high environmental friendliness and sustainable performance, which polypropylene retains for several decades, regardless of weather conditions, aboveground or underground placement. The installation of such a watering system will not complicate even a person who does not have experience in welding polypropylene pipes. The equipment for these works is offered in a large assortment by almost all construction sites.

The healing properties of Echinacea purpurea
The healing properties of Echinacea purpurea - this tall, perennial herb with beautiful purple flowers, has been known to folk healers since ancient times. The Indians were treated with echinacea for snakebites, fever and other diseases. Europeans used the plant as a remedy for colds, but Echinacea purpurea became the most popular in the 20th century, after antiviral, antibacterial, immunostimulating, anti-allergic and anti-influenza properties were found in it. According to the results of p.

April
The beginning of April is the fastest time for salad. It's time to get serious about sowing and planting. Radishes should be sown at several times, approximately every week, in order to get fresh early produce as long as possible in May and June. Sow Odessa curly salads, and other leafy forms, sow watercress, mustard. These crops can be covered with films such as Agrotex, Spandbond, and then by May you have your own greens on the table. Do not be late with sowing dill and parsley, sow parsnips and carrots, black onions in a timely manner and in moist soil and plant a loon.

Growing peas
Peas are characterized by excellent yield and germination. You need to scatter the peas over the bed and press them into the soil. You can sprinkle it on top with sand and of course pour it over. Peas are divided into shell peas, semi-sugar peas and sugar peas. The last one is the most delicious. And his pods are the most tender - they can be consumed both fresh and canned. Peeling is used in soups, and after harvesting it must be dried. By the way, pea tubers accumulate nitrogen and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil, so peas perfectly heal the soil. The pea grows almost by itself, just not for.

The healing properties of crowberry
This wonderful plant has many different names; the people call it shiksha, and nigella, and crow, and a brush or dwarf. This berry was named for its wateriness and, apparently, for its strong diuretic effect, and crowberry - for the color of the fruit, black, like a raven's wing. Outwardly, this evergreen creeping shrub with a height of 20 to 50 cm, thanks to its small narrow leaves of bright green color, looks very attractive. Crowberry blooms with small inconspicuous pinkish or dark red flowers. But her globular massive berries are difficult.

Wireworms (click beetles)
Click beetles in the adult phase of development hardly harm plants, their larvae are dangerous. They are polyphagous and, feeding on the underground part of plants, damage fruit, berries, vegetables and other crops. The larvae have a worm-like body covered with a hard and elastic cover of yellow or red, and it is the larvae of click beetles that are called wireworms. Beetles and their larvae winter in the soil. Overwintered beetles climb to the surface in early spring and feed on the leaves of herbaceous plants. From mid-June to the end of July, females lay their eggs in the soil. Finish.

Lavender is the queen of fragrances
Nowadays, this nondescript-looking queen of fragrances becomes a familiar inhabitant of our gardens, where she brings her irresistible charm. It is used to create low hedges, planted in flower borders, along garden paths, in a group or singly among other fragrant herbs. Due to the fact that the plant lends itself well to curly haircut, the presence of lavender is justified in strict geometric plantings. It should be noted that lavender is quite unpretentious, loves warmth and light, has amazing drought resistance and.

Useful properties of cherries
The most common berry known to anyone since childhood contains more vitamin C and iron than an orange and an apple, respectively. In addition, the fruits are rich in calcium, sodium, phosphorus, vitamins B1, B2, PP, P, folic acid, organic acids and other benefits. Cherry fiber is a natural stimulant of the secretion of digestive juices, which in turn greatly increases appetite. Cherry is actually the only berry that contains inositol, which is an important regulator of metabolism in any cell. Cherry is also appreciated for its content.

Germinating tomato seeds
For better development of young seedlings and obtaining a high yield, especially early, it is necessary to pre-sow tomato seeds with solutions of mineral fertilizers, including those containing trace elements: 1 teaspoon of nitrophoska or nitroammophoska and 1 tablespoon of ash per 1 liter of water.The seeds are kept in the solution for 12 hours. For growing seedlings, it is better to prepare fresh soil: take one part of the garden soil (just not from under potatoes and tomatoes) and perfectly decomposed humus. To make this mixture friable, improve air circulation.

The defeat of potato tubers by rhizoctonia
Rhizoctonia develops on tubers, rudimentary shoots, stems, stolons and roots. The disease manifests itself in the form of black scab of tubers, decay of eyes and shoots, death of roots and stolons, as well as a white bloom of "white leg" on the lower part of potato stalks. The fungus forms brown or black sclerotia ranging in size from 1 to 20 mm, which are attached with the help of hyphae to the surface of the tubers. Symptoms of the disease also appear in the form of necrosis, cracks and a thin sclerocial mesh covering part of the tuber or its entire surface.

Basic methods of dealing with slugs
In late May - early June, young slugs are born from eggs overwintered in the soil, which develop for two months, reach a mature age during this time and begin to reproduce. The female lays eggs in the most humid places - under heaps of grass, debris, under lumps of earth, near the root collar of plants. Slugs are nocturnal. During the day, pests crawl under lumps of earth, hide under the plants, and at night they get out of their shelters and damage the plants. They harm the plantings of cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers, strawberries, potatoes. I eat slugs.


Echinopsis and its "relatives"

There was a time when cacti in the role of indoor plants were represented only by Echinopsis and, much less frequently, by zygocactus, which were called "Christmas trees" for their flowering at the end of the year. On many windowsills one could see the stems of Echinopsis, distorted by the wrong culture. Plants rarely bloomed due to untimely watering, but, as a result, they were covered with numerous "children", which contributed to the wide spread of the genus by rooting of these "offspring".


Hybrid echinopsis
Photos and plants by Tamara Guseva (Antwerp, Belgium)

Collectors with experience still retain unforgettable years in their memory, when each new species of the Cactaceae family could be obtained only from the collections of botanical gardens, which have the opportunity to obtain plants or seeds from dilectus, and from those few lucky people who managed to bring precious species from abroad. Information on the culture of cacti was worth its weight in gold due to the almost complete absence of literary sources in Russian, and the “competent” narratives of sellers from market stalls on caring for purchased plants were listened to with unquestioning observance. Everything has changed over the years. Now any plant you are interested in can be ordered after preliminary selection from numerous catalogs of domestic and foreign companies. The Internet provides unlimited information on the culture of the species, accompanied by quality images of plants.

Of course, this progress contributes to the replenishment of the collections of amateurs and the competent care of them, but, unfortunately, it negates the amateur spirit of search, close to the passion of hunting or to the achievement of the cherished goal of scientists. Remember the folk "you can't pull a fish out of a pond without difficulty," "patience and work will grind everything up," and so on. In Soviet times, standing in line for a deficit and mastering it was the height of pleasure, akin to Mayakovsky's happiness, expressed in the lines "... I carry two carrots by the green tail ...". So it was with cacti: an amateur trembled over each novelty, courting her from all sides, the flowering of a plant was comparable to the first kiss, and death became grief, as from the loss of a loved one. Now we are approaching the American philosophy of collecting: the death of a plant is not terrible, because you can always dig the same in the "backyard" (figuratively speaking).

Americans at all times have not suffered from cactus fever. Their chronic disease was the "gold rush", expressed in the search for gold of the aborigines of the continent and in the development of numerous mines in pursuit of the gold veins of the fabulous Eldorado. From the very beginning of the development of the American continent, the Conquest slogan "make money!" prevails over many good intentions. But, along with the enormous scale of construction, "making money" and displacing the indigenous people on the reservation, science in America followed a parallel path. More recently, Europeans have opened colleges, established research centers, and founded universities. The issues of studying the bowels of newly discovered lands, flora and fauna, living on their surface, began to acquire more and more importance. Of course, cacti, with their unusual shapes and drought resistance, attracted close attention and became one of the main objects for research.

Initially unnamed, or accompanied by difficult to pronounce Aztec names, thousands of copies of them were sent to scientific centers in Europe for identification and attempts to acclimatize in cultural conditions. Only in the middle of the 18th century, with the ingenious "feed" of Karl Linnaeus, cacti receive their surnames (generic names) and names (specific epithets). The number of genera and species included in them is growing uncontrollably, and morphological signs become the determining principle of their division and systematization, according to which, for example, astrophytums cannot be confused with melocactus with cereus, etc.

When the turn came to a careful study of representatives of the Cactaceae family in South America, and "cactus hunters" began to explore Argentina, Chile and Bolivia, they often came across plants resembling young specimens of North American echinocactus. A number of these plants during the flowering period formed flower tubes up to 30 cm long.They were singled out into a separate original group, which was first described in 1837 by a professor of botany from Munich Josef Zuccarinis and gave it the generic name Echinopsis for its similarity to sea urchins (from the Greek achinos - sea urchin and opsi - appearance, species). So the length of the flower tube determined the belonging of plants to "pure" Echinopsis. Over the years, the cactus family has grown so generously that at the beginning of the 20th century it became necessary to revise and unite the genera. Now the genus Echinopsis includes such temporarily independent genera as Lobivia (including Acantholobivia, Neolobivia, Lobiviopsis, Pseudolobivia), Chamaecereus, Trichocereus and other less popular genera. The length of the flower tube has already lost its defining characteristic, but the clan of these plants, different in shape, is united by a common distribution in nature, resistance to all the vagaries of the climate and relative stability in culture.

Give the Echinopsis plenty of sunshine, fresh air, dry cold (6-10 ° C) wintering and they will reward you with annual flowering. The color of large flowers (up to 15 cm in diameter) is so diverse that the targeted selection of "pure" Echinopsis and their hybrids required the development of special catalog tables for the stable fixation of the color gamut. Each shade of petals has its own school, and the plants themselves bear clear names such as Desdemona, Sleeping Beauty, Don Juan and others, no less intriguing.


Hybrid echinopsis
Photo and plant by Vyacheslav Sidenko (Moscow region, Russia)

Echinopsis are unpretentious to the substrate and can be grown in a universal industrial cactus mixture with good drainage of the bottom of the pots. During the growing season, plants are watered regularly as the soil dries out. A feature of watering is the period of swelling of flower buds. At this time, it is reduced to a minimum, otherwise the underdeveloped buds willingly turn into "babies". There is even such a phrase: "each" baby "is a ruined flower." This phenomenon, first of all, refers to "pure" Echinopsis. As for the previously autonomous lobivia, their waterlogging can cause the stems to bush and the plants turn into a multi-headed turf.


Hybrid echinopsis
Photo and plant by Vyacheslav Sidenko (Moscow region, Russia)

Sowing echinopsis is not difficult. Seedlings develop quickly and a number of species are ready to bloom at the age of two. Lateral shoots of "pure" echinopsis, when separated from the uterine stem, easily root and can serve as a stable stock for species that are difficult to grow on their roots. Seedlings that have reached the size of a walnut are especially appreciated as rootstocks.

The recruitment of the genus Echinopsis by the genus Trichocereus described at the very beginning of the 20th century is somewhat doubtful, since Unlike other "newcomers", trichocereuses are large, up to 5 m tall, columnar plants, unsuitable for amateur collections. Of course, high-mountain trichocereuses are beautiful, they are distinguished by magnificent flowering and serve as an adornment of natural landscapes. The seedlings of these plants are another matter. Young specimens of Trichocereus are one of the valuable rootstocks, both for growing difficult species of cacti, and for their constant maintenance. The vital activity of trichocereus is so great that, being rootstocks, they can unexpectedly bloom and bear fruit.

In any case, the entire "clan" of Echinopsis is popular among collectors, and the phrase often repeated among amateurs: "Show me your Echinopsis, and I will tell you what kind of collector you are" remains relevant today.

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Types of popular cacti:


The Echinopsis plant is a member of the Cactaceae family, which is very popular among flower growers. Among all cacti, Echinopsis are the most popular among flower growers. They bloom in spring, it can bloom up to 6 months.

The prickly pear (Opuntia) is the largest genus belonging to the Cactaceae family. It rarely blooms at home. It is a perennial evergreen plant, its small leaf plates are subulate. Opuntia is a very light-loving plant and needs a lot of bright sunlight.

Astrophytum or Star cactus is a genus of globular or low cylindrical succulents from the Cactus family. Cacti of this genus are attractive because, despite the relatively slow growth, flowering occurs quite early and under favorable conditions the plants bloom from spring to autumn with large flowers. The development of the root system is very slow, so it is enough to replant mature plants every 4-5 years.

The ariocarpus plant belongs to the Cactaceae family. It is a succulent with a low and slightly flattened stem. Indoor Ariocarpus is distinguished by its unpretentiousness and undemanding care. Thanks to this, even a novice florist can cultivate it. The plant almost does not need watering.

Cleistocactus is a very beautiful succulent from the Cactaceae family. This genus of cacti can be easily distinguished by columnar rather thin shoots that branch at the base. On the surface of these stems there is a huge number of areoles, so the cactus itself is densely covered with spines of a white-yellow color. These plants are rather unpretentious and unpretentious. An adult plant with a height of about 30-40 cm throws out a large number of buds, which bloom almost simultaneously. Flowering occurs in mid-spring and summer.


It is the largest genus of cactus, containing up to 500 species. Among them there are very unpretentious species that can be found in almost any cactusist, and there are very demanding and complex ones, therefore, probably, rare cacti. Mammillaria are very popular with flower growers and most species grow well all year round in normal home conditions, although ideally they need daily temperature drops of 7-10 ° C, cold content in winter, daily airing, or, whenever possible, placement on a balcony or in a garden under a canopy ...


The genus Lophophora, also called peyote, is of particular interest among the numerous members of the Cactaceae family. According to various sources, this genus unites from 1 to 4 types of cacti. The lophophore cactus has a stem in the form of a slightly flattened ball, which reaches 15 centimeters in diameter. This green-blue fleshy and rather smooth stem has a soft and velvety surface. Blooming is observed in summer. Tubular, semi-double, multi-petal flowers are not very large, about 2 centimeters in diameter. They can be painted in a variety of shades from pale red to pure white.

Since cacti are hardy plants, they practically do not react to sudden temperature changes and normally tolerate coolness, although they are thermophilic plants. They will be a great decoration for your windowsill.


Watering the San Pedro cactus

In the care of the San Pedro cactus, which are fundamental to its proper development, there is irrigation. While this plant is used to the abundant Andean rains, the truth is, it's important not to over-water. Therefore, it is important that the area of ​​the garden or pot in which it is located has a good drainage system.

In general, for the correct watering a cactus San Pedro you it is usually enough to water it, when you notice that the ground is dry ... In any case, as a guideline, we can say that in winter it is recommended water it once a month, and in the summer you need to water every week.

The amount of water should always be moderate and meet the needs of the land. And it is that abundant irrigation has negative consequences for the plant. One of them is the proliferation of fungi, which can seriously damage it. Excess water can also lead to death.


Bulk drying of wrapped flowers

Hygroscopic cotton wool

In addition to powder drying with the use of free-flowing substances, absorbent cotton can be used. In this case, the petals also retain their shape and color well.

Move all the petals, including the most central ones, with pieces of cotton wool. Hang the plant by the stem on a hook or string.

The flower head usually dries up in 5-6 days, but the cotton wool can be removed only after the stem is completely dry.

Toilet paper

When flowers are dried with toilet paper, the cup is flatter and the paper texture leaves marks on the petals, but it does not fall apart.

The flower is overlaid with paper in the same way as with cotton.


Watch the video: Echinopsis Cactus Care Guide In A Tropical Climate. Hedgehog Cactus. Nandanam Exotics. By Nirmal