Beet Swiss chard. Biological features, varieties and cultivation of chard
Features of growing leaf beets
The ancestor of the root beet, both sugar and table beets, is the wild chard, a native of the Mediterranean. Long before the emergence of root forms, beetroot was cultivated. The islands of Sicily, Cyprus, Crete are one of the first centers of distribution of the leaf beet. From here, the beetroot spread to Western Asia, North Africa and Transcaucasia.
During the expeditions, NI Vavilov collected samples of leaf beet called "silk" in the countries of its ancient culture (the Mediterranean islands, Transcaucasia, Palestine, Syria, Tunisia). For its wide silver-milky and bright orange petioles, she received the name "chard".
Chard beets form thick stalks for food. Chard is now widespread: in Western Europe, South America, Japan, India, Korea.
The value of chard
In culture, two forms of chard are used - leaf and petiole, differing in the size of the leaf blades and the width of the petioles. There are varieties with silvery, yellow, red and green petioles.
Beet Swiss chard is used as a spinach plant with a large mass of leaves and petioles. Chard dishes are famous for their good taste. Boiled, fried and stewed chard stalks are considered a delicacy. Red-peaked varieties are more often used in botvinia. Chard leaves are eaten fresh or boiled for salads, soups and other dishes, and in green-leaved varieties they are more often used in salads.
Swiss chard beet has a high taste. In addition, this vegetable plant is distinguished by the fact that it contains a lot of calcium, phosphorus and iron salts.
Young leaves and petioles grown from small root crops and roots of chard are used in greenhouses in early spring. Although the roots are not used for food, they contain up to 24-28% dry matter, 12-17% sugars and 8% fiber. Swiss chard is a nutritious animal feed. It grows back quickly after mowing and produces an abundant mass of tops. Due to the variety of original plant colors and different forms of leaves, chard beets have found their use for decorative purposes.
Biological features of Swiss chard
Botanical differences. In culture, chard is a biennial plant. In the first year of life, it forms a thickened, often branched root and rosette of leaves, in the second - stems, flowers and seeds. Chard is characterized by a large rosette with various colors: milky-white, green, yellow, orange and red leaves with wide petioles 6-8 cm (up to 10-15 cm). The surface of the leaf blades is often wavy or corrugated. The color of the petioles is green, silver, orange or red. Petioles often make up 50–60% of the aboveground mass. Chard roots are usually inedible.
Requirements for growing conditions. In terms of biological qualities, chard is not much different from root beet. The zoned varieties are relatively cold-resistant, withstand short temperature drops in spring and autumn, and are resistant to flowers. Beet Swiss chard is a light-loving plant. Delay in thinning sharply slows down growth, development and reduces the yield. Plants are able to tolerate slight drought, but a powerful leaf rosette can only be obtained with good moisture supply. Chard beets are demanding on soil fertility and do not tolerate the increased acidity of the soil solution.
Growing beet Swiss chard
Varieties. The State Register includes five varieties of Swiss chard beet: Scarlet, Red, Krasavitsa - red-peted, Belavinka - silver-peeled and Green - green-peted.
Soil preparation. For sowing, select a fertile, loose, well-moistened area. The soil is prepared in the same way as for beetroot.
Seed preparation and sowing. Before sowing, seeds are soaked in water at room temperature for two or three days. They are sown on ridges or ridges with row spacing of 40–45 (up to 60) cm, to a depth of 3–4 cm. The seeding rate of Swiss chard beet seeds is 1–1.5 g per 1 m². The seeding depth is 2–3 cm. To obtain early production, sowing with germinated seeds or planting seedlings grown in pots with a distance in a row of 20–25 cm is used in spring.
Sowing chard in the winter makes it possible to get early production. It is carried out in the fall before the onset of permanent frosts (-4 ... -5 ° C), approximately in mid-November. For this, the beds are made in advance and the sowing furrows are prepared on them. The sown seeds are covered with peat or rotted manure (humus) from above.
Leaving and harvesting. The techniques for caring for chard plants are the same as for beetroot. With a sharp change in rainy and dry weather, a crust may form on soil that is structureless, prone to swimming, which prevents the emergence of Swiss chard. To destroy it, lightly loosening with a rake across the rows is used. Thin the plants twice as they grow. In leafy varieties, after the second thinning, the distance between plants is 18–20 cm, in petiole varieties, 25–35 cm.
It should be borne in mind that Swiss chard beets use leaves for food, therefore, in order to avoid poisoning, the use of any pesticides is not allowed, and late dressings are excluded, especially with nitrogen fertilizers.
The readiness for harvesting of leafy chard varieties occurs 2–2.5 months after germination, petiolate varieties - in three months. Chard leaves are removed either selectively, cutting out large leaves with petioles as they grow, or at the same time, cutting off the entire above-ground mass. It is important not to stain the leaves when cleaning.
Growing beets on a leaf in greenhouses
In greenhouses, two types of beets are grown: table beet - to obtain a young rosette of leaves and chard - to obtain fleshy juicy petioles and young leaves. Table beets are valued for juicy roots and partially for young leaves, while Swiss chard beets are valued for their petioles, which often make up 50-60% of the aboveground mass and young leaf blades (their roots are usually inedible). Beets in greenhouses are cultivated by planting seedlings and by forcing, sometimes by sowing seeds.
The seedling method is used to obtain products at an early time. When growing seedlings, the soil must have an adequate supply of nutrients. In protected ground, early ripening, high-yielding varieties of table beets with a large rosette of leaves are grown: Cold-resistant 19, Gribovskaya flat, Bordeaux 237, Pushkinskaya flat K-18 and Swiss chard: Krasnochereshkovy, Serebristochereshkovy, Spinach.
Only beet seedlings can be used as a cucumber or tomato compactor. The seedling method uses potless seedlings 25-30 days old. It is planted with a distance between rows of 10 cm, in a row of 5–8 cm, that is, 150–200 pieces. per 1 m², and when grown as a sealant 70–100 pieces.
In 7-10 days after rooting of seedlings, the first liquid feeding is carried out (15-20 g of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers per bucket of water). After 15–20 days, feeding is repeated.
The harvesting of beetroot is started when the plants form a root crop that has reached the size of a walnut, that is, 40-50 days after planting the seedlings. The yield when growing beets per leaf is 3-4 kg per 1 m², when grown as a compactor - 1.5-2 kg.
For forcing beetroot small, non-marketable beetroots weighing 30–60 g are suitable, which are harvested in autumn and stored in storage until the end of December - beginning of January. Before planting, diseased and severely wilted roots are removed. Beets are planted in winter greenhouses in a bridge way (close to each other), without covering the apical buds with earth. For 1 m², 4–8 kg of planting material is required. The roots, so that they do not bend when planting, pinch or cut to 1 / 4-1 / 3 of the length. The soil around the root crops is compacted and watered abundantly with warm water. Under optimal conditions of moisture (70% PPV) and temperature (+ 20 ... + 25 ° C) of the soil, 2–3 days after planting, intensive regrowth of leaves begins.
Beets are driven out, like celery and parsley, at a temperature of + 18 ... + 20 ° C. Plants are watered once every 8-10 days. Distillation lasts 35–45 days. 5-6 kg of products are obtained from 1 m². The day before harvesting, the beets are watered abundantly with water. When the leaves are dry, the plants are dug up along with the roots.
Beetroot vegetables, together with leaves, can be kept fresh for a long time in a cool room and in the refrigerator, especially when packed in plastic bags. It should be remembered that before December, these products are not in demand.
Chard beet with great effect can be used for forcing leaves in winter and spring in protected ground.
Root crops for distillation, 30–50 g in size, are grown by sowing seeds in the open field in late May - early June. Seedlings are thinned out every 10–15 cm. The harvested roots are packed in plastic bags or boxes and stored at a temperature of 0 ... + 1 ° С. They are planted in greenhouses in late December - early January.
Chard beets are planted by bridge, for which the plants are placed close to the ground. Covering root crops with soil, their heads with buds are not covered with soil in order to avoid putrefactive diseases. On 1 m² there are 70–100 pieces of roots, which equals, depending on the size, 15–25 kg. The temperature in the room during the forcing of greens should be + 20 ... + 25 ° С, the relative humidity of the air - about 70%.
Chard is harvested by making 2-3 cuts of leaf stalks. The first cut is usually 30–40 days after planting. After 2-3 weeks, the leaves grow back, cutting can be repeated.
During the distillation period, chard forms 13–18 leaves of a rather large size. The length of the leaf reaches 40 cm, the width is 15 cm. The yield increase (due to the formation of leaves) can be from 5 to 25%, depending on the period of forcing. The yield of leaves when forcing is 7–12 kg per 1 m² for one cut, for 2-3 cuts it can reach 22–26 kg per 1 m². Good results are obtained when using the Serebrischereshkovy variety for forcing. Plants harvested with roots can be kept fresh for a long time in cool rooms and refrigerators.
Cut leaves of chard wither quickly, so it is harvested as needed. Leaves can be kept moist for a short time in plastic bags. For a long time (1–2 weeks), Swiss chard leaves should be stored loosely in plastic bags in the refrigerator, or even better, in an artificially controlled atmosphere. Chard leaves do well with transportation.
candidate of agricultural sciences
Mangold, what is it
Chard is a fairly powerful plant that can grow 60-70 cm high. It depends on the variety. Mangold is a close relative of the common beet, but it does not form a root crop, but is valued precisely for its ground part - a lush rosette of large bubble leaves, towering above the ground on tall thick petioles.
Chard has several names - shnitt chard, leaf chard, petiolate chard. It is grown for the sake of obtaining delicious and unusually healthy leaves.
Not only leaves are eaten, but also juicy fleshy stems, which, with proper care, reach a diameter of 7-8 mm. The petioles, just like the leaves, are incredibly rich in vitamins, minerals, trace elements and a variety of valuable compounds. If you introduce into your diet the regular use of this vegetable plant, you can in the best way raise immunity, strengthen your health.
Of those varieties that I planted on my site, the high yield especially liked the mid-season variety of chard Bride, which allows the first cut of greens 55-65 days after germination. The plant reaches a height of 50-60 cm, has large wavy dark green leaves and very thick white petioles, which are particularly juicy and piquant taste.
The Krasavitsa variety, which ripens at the same time, is no less tasty. This Swiss chard variety also allows for several cuts per season and has a high yield. In addition, it is also unusually decorative: a lush rosette of green leaves with red veins reaches a height of 60-70 cm and looks very elegant in the garden, thanks to its bright crimson thick petioles. And he can decorate any flower garden!
Mangold: planting and care, photo, reproduction, varieties, growing in the open field + video
As soon as they do not call chard: collard, spinach, Japanese beet or even roman cabbage. The cultivation of this useful culture is popular in its homeland - in the Mediterranean countries, but in Russia its varieties are not yet very common. Summer residents who decided to plant a plant in the open ground or on the balcony note: Swiss chard does not require special care and is very tasty in different dishes.
Eating Swiss chard
Large and juicy beet leaves are suitable for making vitamin salads, vinaigrette and various snacks. Greens are added to soups, main courses. It can also be sautéed in oil. The petioles must be boiled in salted water and fried in a pan.
The tasty Swiss chard leaves can also be fermented like cabbage, and the petioles can be pickled like cucumbers in an upright jar.
To preserve the maximum amount of vitamins in Swiss chard, you just need to boil it for a few minutes and then, cut into pieces, add to omelets, pasta, mix with dressings and sauces.
Alternatively, you can prepare the following dishes from chard:
- vegetarian lasagna
- vitamin salads with chard
- stuffed cabbage rolls in beet leaves
- puff pastry patties with Swiss chard
- petioles stewed in sour cream
- potato nests with beetroot
- Tuscan soup
- lentils with chard.
And this is not a complete list of all kinds of delicacies that can be prepared with beetroot. By connecting imagination and invention, you can delight your loved ones with author's and original dishes with the addition of chard.
Features of planting chard
Since the propagation of lettuce using seedlings is not so common, we will only briefly mention how to plant chard using the seedling method. The main advantage of this method is that an earlier harvest can be achieved in this way. You can sow plants for seedlings in early April. Before sowing seeds for seedlings, they must be soaked for one day.
Since the root system of chard is very developed, it is necessary to select a deep container or separate pots for seedlings. The distance between crops should be 25-30 cm. Seedlings are planted in open ground when they reach an age of 3.5-4.5 weeks and a height of 8-9 cm, in early or mid-May. You can plant it tightly - observing the intervals of 15-20 cm between the plants.The harvest will be ready for cutting in about a month, when the leaves reach a height of about 25 cm.