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Forcing on greens of perennial onions

Forcing on greens of perennial onions


Green onions or onion feathers are not only tasty, but also very healthy. Many people grow such greens in their apartment. But today we will talk about such perennial onions as batun, slug and chives. These varieties of onions can also please in winter with their green feathers, which, in terms of taste and composition, are much superior to the green onions we are used to.

Preparing for planting green onions

To distill greens from perennial onion varieties, you will not need large bulbs, but a small piece of land, or rather its surface layer, in which small onions have grown together with roots. Such onion turf is used together with a clod of earth for further forcing on greens.

For forcing a slime and a tramp in the sod, there should be at least five small accrete bulbs, and for chives, at least three dozen plants will be needed.

If the plants have been in the soil for at least three years, then they are most suitable for forcing. The most favorable seasons for sod harvesting are considered autumn (around the beginning of October) or winter (but only during the warming period).

When harvesting turf, pay attention to the ground parts of perennial plants. They must be dry. If they still look fresh, it is best to cut them off, as they will interfere with the growth of new greenery.

Planting and leaving green onions

The harvested sods are not immediately planted for distillation, but are given time to be alone (about a month and a half). A cool room (cellar or basement) will be an ideal place for them to "rest". The sods are stored in an upright position, placing them tightly to each other. As a storage container, ordinary wooden or plastic boxes, wicker baskets or bags are suitable.

At the end of the bulbous dormant period (approximately in November or December), the process of forcing the feathers from the perennial onions can begin. You need to start with a thorough examination and sorting of the rhizomes. All roots unsuitable for planting (with signs of freezing or decay) must be removed.

Flower pots or special forcing boxes should be at least 15 centimeters deep. First, they are filled with prepared soil to a height of 10 centimeters, and then sod is laid on top of it and lightly sprinkled with earth. Immediately after that, watering is carried out with warm water and transferred to a room with a constant temperature within 10-12 degrees Celsius and left there for 7 days.

By keeping the plants for a week in such temperature conditions, we give it the opportunity to root well, which will affect the amount of greenery in the future.

The first watering can be replaced by immersing the rhizomes before planting in warm water for 12 hours.

When the first sprouts appear, containers with onions are transferred to a bright and warmer room with a temperature of about 18 degrees.

Perennial onions require moderate watering, constant airing, and regular feeding. Organic feeding is carried out three times a month. You can prepare fertilizer from fallen leaves of indoor flowers. To do this, the leaves are folded into a container, poured with water, tightly closed with a lid and left to infuse.

Harvesting perennial onions

Green chives - onions can be eaten after a couple of weeks. Perennial onions batun and slug should release feathers more than 20 centimeters high. If flower arrows are formed, they are also cut and used in salads and other dishes.

For reference

Schnitt-bow - has a mild taste, grows quickly, blooms with edible "caps" of a lilac or pink hue.

Batun - has a pungent taste, powerful feathers and contains a large amount of vitamin C.

Slime - has a light taste of garlic, quite wide and juicy leaves, useful for digestive disorders.


GREEN ONION ALL YEAR ROUND. CONVEYOR OF GREEN ONION IN GREENHOUSES

N. YURIEVA, Candidate of Biological Sciences.

When green onions stop yielding outdoors (see "Science and Life" No. 4, 1998), it can be grown in greenhouses. This usually happens in late autumn and winter. The construction and operation of glazed winter greenhouses are expensive, and only when a crop is obtained, the cost of which exceeds the cost of the planted material by at least 30%, this crop can be profitable. That is why it is especially important to approach the selection of types and varieties of onions, as well as the methods of their cultivation at different times of the year. To make a profit, first of all, you need to know the basic biological characteristics of onions and their requirements for growing conditions. So, it is impossible to grow onions in a greenhouse in autumn and winter, at this time it is in deep dormancy, and the bulbs grow poorly even when using special methods. In addition, this bow is very picky about light. Therefore, growing greenery in the off-season will inevitably lead to losses. In the middle lane, it is advisable to grow onions for greens in greenhouses only from March.

Since autumn, it is necessary to plant perennial onions that do not have a dormant period: multi-tiered, slime, chives, as well as batun onions, which have a very short dormant period - 1.5 months after the seeds ripen, and since November it can be planted in a greenhouse ... Shallots have a relatively short rest period. It can be grown profitably in winter greenhouses from December. However, you need to show maximum attention when choosing a planting date, a growing scheme, and most importantly, a variety and reliable planting material. Greenhouses usually grow onion greens from bulbs, bulbs, "delenok" or "turf". Plants from seeds are weak, grow slowly, require a lot of care, and this is unprofitable.

The planting material for perennial onions is prepared in advance - in the fall, most often they dug out "cuttings" of 3-4-year-old plants, they have larger and more productive bulbs.

All perennial onions are frost-resistant, therefore, the bulbs (except for the batuna onions) can be stored frozen in a barn or right on the street, they are sprinkled with low-lying peat or light earth and covered from snow and excess moisture with a matting or old film. It is desirable that during storage the temperature does not rise for a long time above 0 ° C and the bulbs are not thawed. Temperature fluctuations are more dangerous for them than severe frosts. It is convenient to store planting material in small light boxes, stacked on top of each other. At the bottom of each box, 1.5-2 cm of humus or garden soil is poured, on which bulbs (bridge planting) or curtains are placed close to each other with their bottoms (roots) down. As necessary, boxes with planting material are brought into a warm room. At first, neither the bulbs nor the curtains, until they thaw and begin to grow, do not need light. They are watered with warm water, and after 10-14 days, when the first green sprouts appear, the boxes with onions are rearranged in a well-lit place. The temperature is maintained at about 18-22 ° C during the day, and around 14-16 ° C at night.

The most unpretentious and profitable in the autumn and at the beginning of winter is the multi-tiered onion. It can be grown at lower temperatures and lower lighting. Both bulbs and underground false bulbs serve as planting material. The duration of forcing is from 25 to 40 days. From 1 kg of planting material, an average of about 2 kg of green onions is obtained. To obtain your own planting material, you must have a special area in the open ground with an area of ​​0.1 of the area that you plan to occupy in the greenhouse.

Slime onion is not widespread enough in protected ground, very early ripening and frost-resistant. Slime is a little like onions. It has flat, wide leaves with a blunt rounded end, very delicate and not rough, with a faint garlic aroma. This onion is quite yielding, even in the open field, it stops growing only when frost sets in and goes under the snow with green leaves. And since it does not have a dormant period, it can be planted in a greenhouse at any time of the year. For planting, use bulbs with a piece of rhizome, from which the roots extend. Slime onions are unpretentious and can grow at lower temperatures than other types of onions.

Better known is chives - a perennial plant with thin, subulate leaves, delicate and very fragrant. It is planted with curtains, harvested in the fall, with 2-4 plants in each.

The most common and famous among perennial onions is the onion. Its planting material - false bulbs - is harvested from open ground in October, the leaves are cut off before digging, stored with a small clod of earth in a barn or right on the street, and in November they are planted in a greenhouse. The period of forcing at a temperature of 18-20 ° C in November is 23-26 days, in January - 20 days, in February - 15-17 days. With a bridge landing for 1 sq. m fits from 500 to 800 bulbs. The trampoline is hygrophilous, so it has to be watered often. The air humidity in the greenhouse is maintained within 75-85%.

Batun onions give more leveled greens than onions, and its cost is 5-6 times lower than the cost of green onions from a sample of onions.

Since December, it is beneficial to grow shallots in greenhouses (see table). In terms of the quality and quantity of greens, it surpasses both onions and onions. When growing shallots, special attention should be paid to the planting material: it is important that no old bulbs infected with the virus get caught. Preference is most often given to local forms, which, as a rule, have greater vitality and productivity, and are also more adapted to local conditions.

As observations have shown, onions are more profitable to grow in greenhouses since March. It is planted in less expensive heated film greenhouses or as a sealant for slowly growing vegetables that have a long growing period. It is most convenient to plant this onion in small light boxes with an area of ​​40x60 cm, which can be easily carried, if necessary, from one place to another. Under this condition, its distillation is faster and more profitable.

For growing green onions in greenhouses, not Central Russian varieties are more suitable, but southern ones, such as Karatalsky, Krasnodar G-35, Spanish 313, Kaba, which have a short dormant period, in greenhouse conditions they grow better and give more greenery than Central Russian varieties ... For planting, it is more profitable to use onions. The larger the bulbs planted, the lower the income. As with other types of onion, the greatest yield is obtained when paving medium-sized bulbs.

The agricultural techniques for growing different types of onions are almost the same. All plants need regular watering and good lighting. Onions are more picky about light than others. Temperature is of great importance: due to overheating, not only the presentation of the greenery may deteriorate, but also the yield may significantly decrease.

The appearance of the chives is essential for sale. Therefore, it is necessary to remove the plants in such a way as to maintain a fresh attractive appearance and not to stain the greens with earth. It is better to put onions together with bulbs in rectangular plastic or wicker boxes, placing the plants tops to one side and not filling the boxes to the top, so as not to crush the greens when they are placed on top of each other.

Siberian scientists have developed a special technology for harvesting cut greens in relation to chives. When the leaves reach the marketable length (20-25 cm) with their left hand, take them into a bunch at a height of about 10 cm from the ground and cut them off at a level of 5-6 cm. In this case, small leaves and arrows from the bunch fall out. Cut onions are immediately placed in plastic bags 40x25 cm in size (about 0.5 kg), weighed and placed for 1-2 hours (no more) in a cool place at a temperature not higher than 15 ° C. After cooling, the bags are sealed and put into boxes, up to 120 pieces each. They are transported in boxes to the place of sale or storage. In refrigerators, onions can be stored at a constant temperature of about 0 ° C for 20 days.

Obviously, a similar technology with some modifications can be used for harvesting other types of onions.


Forcing onions for herbs

To make the greens grow faster, you need to "wake up" the bulbs. To do this, they must be cut by the shoulders and heated for 8–10 hours in warm water (30–35 ° С). However, this can only be done with those bulbs that have not begun to germinate, that is, they are still dormant.

It is advisable to plant the onions tightly to each other, and immediately after planting, set the temperature to 10-15 ° C and maintain it at this level for 7-8 days, then raise it to 20-22 ° C.

Watering

As soon as the apical buds begin to grow (10-12 days after planting), watering should be started. This is important, because during this period there is an intensive growth of roots.

  1. Watering should not be frequent, but the soil should be slightly damp.
  2. Indoors, the air humidity is maintained at 70–75%, and when growing chard, up to 80%.

Lighting up

A large amount can negatively affect the yield of greens, therefore, additional lighting is usually used at the last stage of forcing.

So, it is necessary to supplement the onion for 4–5 days for 8 hours in order for the feather to be rich in color.

Greenery cleaning

The greens are removed after 30–35 days, more often in several steps. After harvesting, the plants can be fed with any complex mineral fertilizer (3-5 g of nitroammofoska per 1 m2 of area), and in the spring they can be planted in open ground.

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Similar dissertations in the specialty "Vegetable growing", 06.01.06 code VAK

Agrobiological substantiation of assortment for conveyor cultivation of green and spicy-aromatic crops in open and protected ground in Western Siberia 2013, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences Kolpakov, Nikolai Anatolievich

Breeding of salad endive chicory (Сicorium endivia L. Var crisrum Lam.), Escariola (Cichorium endivia L. Var. Latifolium Lam.) And witloof (Cichorium intybus L. Var. Foliosum Hegl) for yield, product quality and early maturity 2000, candidate Agricultural Sciences Shevchenko, Yuriy Petrovich

Reproduction methods and methods of seed production of small-bulb varieties of winter garlic 1999, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Tereshonok, Vladimir Ilyich

Development of varietal agricultural technology of melons and gourds in the conditions of winter greenhouses of the second light zone 2004, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Dolgiy, Vasily Viktorovich

Morpho-biological characteristics of species and varieties of the genus Lilium L. during the introduction and forcing in the Belgorod region 2009, Candidate of Biological Sciences Ospishcheva, Natalia Vasilievna


Gardener's calendar for april

Go to:
Seasonal jobs in April:

General works in April

Finish work on the preparation of greenhouses, soil. The old film (glass) is washed with warm water with powder or soap.

Prepare the seed and the seedbed (sowing).

Remove winter shelters, cover heat-loving crops from possible frost.

Feed useful birds wintering in the garden. Titmouses love frozen unsalted lard, grains, bread crumbs, and peeled sunflower seeds.

Loosen the soil around trees, bushes and perennials, apply fertilizers, treat against diseases and pests. Early spring feeding of trees, shrubs, flower and garden perennials is most important for flowering. Fertilization is effective over melted snow, especially ash (snow melting will begin earlier).

STORAGE. Check and remove rotten fruits, vegetables, rhizomes and flower corms from storage.

If you find spoiled potatoes, do not rush to throw them away. Starch can be made from such potatoes. When preparing its washes, it is necessary to do 3-5 times and even more, when starch is obtained from dirty, slightly frozen or rotten potatoes. Rinse until the water becomes clear and colorless.

If rot appears on the tubers of dahlias and gladioli bulbs, clean out the damaged areas, cut out the decayed parts, wash the tubers and bulbs in a bright pink solution of potassium permanganate, treat the wounds with brilliant green, colloidal sulfur, or sprinkle with a crushed tablet of any medicinal sulfa drug. Having found thrips larvae, spray the walls and lid of the box in which the thrips are stored with an insecticide spray.

Remove excess moisture by ventilating.

Examine the white cabbage. Small, damaged and unsuitable for long-term storage heads of cabbage should be processed.

Store onions and spring garlic in a dry room at 18-21 °, winter garlic at 1-5 ° and 70-80% humidity.

From mice, you can prepare a mixture: 1 part sugar and cement, 2 parts flour. Having tasted it, rodents die, and their corpses will not be poisonous for cats and owls (unlike poisonous drugs).

LANDING PLANNING. Identify the varieties to be discarded and select new varieties. Plan your garden based on crop rotation and characteristics. So, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, beans, cucumbers love the sun and warmth. Various green (salads, spinach, sorrel, dill) and rhubarb grow well in the shade. On household plots, strawberries are usually included in the vegetable crop rotation (see Strawberry crop rotation. It is also useful to plan joint crop plantings.

Plan the placement of flowers on the site, including perennial ones. When creating beautiful flower arrangements, observe, especially for perennials, two main conditions: the soil suitable for a particular plant and the degree of illumination. So, sunny places like perennials originating from prairies and steppes, such as paradoxical and pale Echinacea, foxglove penstemon, naked aster (higher) or Veronica spikelet, meadowsweet yarrow, lanceolate coreopsis, fistula monard (lower). Herbaceous plants such as meconopsis cambrian, euphorbia almond-shaped, knotty geranium endure a light shade.

RESERVES. Check seed stocks and replenish with new seeds as needed, including for re-seeding and reserve seeding. Sort and determine their germination (germination). Purchase fresh parsley, celery, parsnip, dill, and black onions every year.

Collect eggshells, onion and garlic skins, potato peels, citrus peels, wood ash, and waste paper at home.

You can consider sticking the seeds onto strips of newspaper or toilet paper. Flour paste is applied to the strips and the seeds are laid out, for example, after 2 cm or in a 2x2 cm pattern in a checkerboard pattern (watercress, dill, coriander, tarragon, mint, lemon balm, marjoram). In the spring, the strips are rolled out in the garden bed, sprinkled with earth and watered.

Collect material (sawdust, debris, straw, etc.) for smoke during spring return frosts.

Phenological seeding clues

Successful farmers in the old days had a lot of experience observing nature and knew when to sow what. The science of such phenomena, called phenology, has given rise to several "rules" about sowing.

Here are some examples (By www.almanac.com). Regions can be different. Think about how to relate this to your region!

  • Sow corn when the size of elm leaves is the size of a squirrel's ear and oak leaves are the size of a mouse's ear when the apple blossom begins to fall or when the dogwood is in full bloom.
  • Sow lettuce, spinach, peas, and other crops that can withstand cool weather when the lilacs show their first leaves or when the daffodils begin to bloom.
  • Plant cucumbers and squash when the lilac flowers wither.
  • Plant tomatoes and peppers when dogwood is at its peak or when daylilies are starting to bloom.
  • Sow pansies, snapdragons and other hardy annuals after aspen and bird cherry buds open.
  • Plant beets and carrots, sow when the dandelions bloom.
As a reminder, you can plan your garden plots with our free online Garden Planner. Knowing how many plants to buy saves you headaches and money, and proper planning means better yields. Click here to try Planner Garden for yourself.

Houses, veranda, heated greenhouse

Seed preparation

Sort out the seeds. It is useful to treat seeds with growth stimulants and immunomodulators that increase plant resistance to diseases and adverse conditions.

Growing seedlings

for a solar greenhouse: basil (15.3-10.4), melon (1-15.4), cucumbers (5-30.4)

for open ground: rutabagas (20.4-5.5), zucchini and zucchini (25.4-15.5), w / c late cabbage (25.3-15.4), mid-season (15.4..5.5), broccoli (1.3..25.5), Brussels sprouts ( 25.3..25.4), kohlrabi (1.3..15.7), red cabbage (15.4..5.5), early Beijing (two terms 20.3..20.4), colored (3 terms 1.3..15.6), zucchini and zucchini (1-15.4 ), leeks (10.3..5.4), chives (by seeds and dividing the bush 5.3-10.4), lovage (1-10.4), marjoram (20.3-10.4), lemon balm (5.3-10.4), peppermint, squash (20.4-10.5), rhubarb (10.4-10.5), head and leaf lettuce (15.3..20.7), romaine lettuce (25.2..15.7), beetroot (10-25.4), leaf celery (1.3..15.4) , asparagus (25.2..10.6), tomatoes, better hybrids, early (15.3-10.4), medium early (10-20.4), vegetable beans for the shoulder blade and for grain (20.4-20.5), physales (20.3-10.4), tarragon ( 10.2-5.5).

The use of fluorescent lamps of white or yellow light at the beginning of plant growth significantly reduces the time for growing seedlings. Lamps are installed at a height of 10 cm from the shoots. Seedlings need to be illuminated continuously for 3-4 days.

Read about sowing, as well as caring for seedlings and seedlings of tomato here, cucumber - here.

As soon as the cotyledons open, the tomato and pepper seedlings are fed. It is useful to process seedlings, especially tomatoes, with some kind of growth regulator, and fertilize well with urgas.

At a temperature of at least 5 °, the seedlings begin to harden.

Preparation of planting material

Onion. So that the plants do not get sick with false downy mildew or powdery mildew, the onion seedlings are warmed up 5-15 days before planting in the ground. Warming up temperature + 40-43 ° С, warming-up time - 8-10 hours.

When a large onion set is stored incorrectly, that is, at temperatures below + 15 ° C, the plants grown from it quickly throw out arrows. If you purchased a large set (more than 1 cm in diameter) and do not know how it was stored, try to warm it up at a temperature of + 25-30 ° C for 15-20 days before planting. Then there will be much less darting plants.

Germination of planting early potato tubers continues. With wet germination (the second phase of the combined), their condition is checked every 5-6 days so that the length of the seedlings does not exceed 2.5-3 cm.If necessary, the temperature is increased to + 18-20 ° C or, conversely, reduced to + 6- 8 ° C.

Plants are fed twice: when roots appear at the base of the shoots and after 3-5 days. Top dressing is carried out in the following way: 60 g of superphosphate solution, 30 g of potassium chloride and 5-10 g of copper sulfate per 10 liters of water.

The sprouts should not be more than 3 cm in length, otherwise they will easily break off during planting.

During light germination, potato tubers can be treated with enriching solutions of mineral fertilizers, growth stimulants, wood ash, microelements. It is better to do this by spraying tubers spread out on the floor.

Potatoes. Put potatoes on light germination (from April 5). The laying of early maturing potatoes for germination should be started already in mid-March. Tubers can be germinated in 4–6 kg plastic bags. They need to make holes with a diameter of 3-6 cm every 15 cm for ventilation. The bags are hung closer to the light, but not to the sun.

During light germination, tubers can be treated with solutions of mineral fertilizers, growth stimulants, wood ash, microelements. It is better to do this by spraying tubers spread out on the floor.

Tuber germination can be carried out in just 7-10 days. Pour the substrate on the bottom of the container - a 2-3 mm layer of sawdust, humus, chaff or other loose material moistened with a solution of copper sulfate (1-2 g per 1 liter of water). Lay the tubers on top, tops up. Pour the substrate again, then the tubers and so on to the top. When drying, moisten the substrate with water. The sprouts should not be longer than 3 cm, otherwise they will break off during planting.

If you still could not germinate the tubers, then do at least this: 5-15 days before planting, put out the boxes or spread the tubers in a layer of 10-15 cm in a room with ventilation and a temperature of + 13-16degС.

Forcing on greens

They begin to grow a garden on the balcony.

If there is a lot of work in the garden and garden at the dacha, and you are running out of time, take a look at our NOT page at the dacha.

CUTTING - 1-15.4. The sanitary and formative pruning of "trees" is injected. Whitewashing of trunks and trimming of stone fruits is carried out at a temperature not lower than + 5 °. Trunks and large branches are cleaned of dead bark and destroy pests. Dried fruits, carrion and leaves are harvested. The deformed blackened ends of currant and gooseberry branches (with powdery mildew) are cut and burned.

They examine, remove and burn the swollen buds of currants (especially black ones), affected by a very dangerous pest - currant kidney mite. It is best to remove and burn all affected branches. Scrape off the scabbard branches with a knife.

Before the start of sap flow, they are sprayed against pests, for example, with a concentrated fertilizer solution (700 g of urea or 500 g of nitroammofoska, or 600 g of azophoska, or 1 kg of sodium chloride per 10 liters of water). You can also ash (4 glasses of ash pour a liter of boiling water, add 9 liters of cold water in a day).

They check the shelter of roses; at the end of March, only needles can be left on the plants. Shelters are removed from early bulbous flowers. Untie and straighten the raspberries.

After heavy rainfall, shake off the snow from the branches of young trees and shrubs so that they do not break off.

Pack snow around trees to keep out mice.

SEEDING, SEEDING MATERIAL - Prepare cuttings of fruit trees for grafting in the spring. It is better to store them in the snow (wrapped in cloth).

Check the storage in basements of cuttings of fruit and berry crops harvested in the fall.

To obtain seedlings of apple trees, pears, plums, rose hips, barberries and other woody plants, stratify the seeds in the refrigerator (in a bag with wet peat).

April 1-15. Before the buds swell, they complete the pruning of trees and shrubs, spray them from pests (if this was not done in March).

In black currants, the weakened (from powdery mildew) tops of the stems are cut off, the swollen buds affected by the mite are plucked out.

In raspberries, the stems are cut to the first, well-developed bud, and shoots with thickenings (galls) are removed and burned.

The branches of currants, gooseberries and honeysuckle are spilled with hot (60-90 °) water until the buds open (to protect against pests and diseases).

Wounds and tree hollows are treated with a solution of copper sulfate (30 g / l).

By the diameter of the crown, the trunks of trees and bushes are plowed, fertilizers are applied, preferably organic.

Before the buds bloom, seedlings of trees and shrubs are planted, currants, gooseberries, etc. are propagated by lignified cuttings or layering.

To protect trees and bushes from mosses and fungi, spraying with copper sulfate (20 g / l) is carried out every 2-3 years (April 20-30). It is useful when the buds are swollen to spray with a 3% Bordeaux mixture.

Ornamental garden

At the beginning of April, roses are pruned: often low, but in park and climbing roses - the shoots are slightly shortened, all weak, dry and diseased branches are cut out. They loosen the soil, feed, mulch (2-3 cm). Remove the shelter from the roses, shade for 1-2 weeks of eating.

In the first decade, the sowing of seedlings on a windowsill or in a greenhouse is completed by marigolds, godetia, sweet peas, coreopsis, cosmea, lavateria, sea lobularia, nasturtium, sunflower, rudbeckia, zinnia and other annual florals. Sweet peas and nasturtium are grown without picking.

Cold-resistant flowers (annual and perennial) are sown into the ground, such as cornflower, bindweed, godetia, dimorphoteka, sweet peas, iberis, calendula, clarkia, poppy, malopa, malcolmia, matiola, nemophila, nigella, mignonette, escholzia. Rhododendrons are planted. In the ground, under the film, sow calendula

If daffodils and tulips have grown to 10 cm, they are sprayed with boric acid (1 g / l of water).

Perennial large-fruited cranberries (6-8 plants / m2) are sown in slightly acidic soil.

Lawn

Lawn grasses are sown (20-40 g of seeds per 1 sq. M). Just before sowing, the entire soil layer should be moist. The seeded area is rolled up with a roller or trampled down with planks attached to the shoes. Be sure to watered, at first after 2-3 days (about 10 mm of water per week). When the lawn emerges, during a drought, it is recommended to water it every day with a shallow stream of water.

The irrigation system should not be left unattended: excess water will concentrate in puddles and raise seeds to the surface, then the greens will grow unevenly. When the seeds are growing, watering is limited.

Lovers of brightly flowering meadows of Russian fields are advised to sow a Moorish lawn instead of a plain green carpet (English lawn).

Lawn care after winter

If the snow cover is still in April, feed the lawn with fertilizers with a high nitrogen content, applying them on top, right on the snow surface.

You should not walk on the wet surface of the lawn bed - this leads to excessive compaction of the soil surface, which, accordingly, slows down the development of the horses of the lawn grasses.

Using a fan rake, collect the foliage left over from the fall of the foliage from the lawn grass.

Clear the path of oxygen to the roots of the lawn by piercing the surface of the lawn with a pitchfork.

If moss spots appear on the lawn, it is necessary to add lime (dolomite flour) by mixing lime with sand, spreading this mixture over the moss on the lawn. Better to carry out liming work in dry weather. Lawn liming work is also useful in the absence of moss.

In the event that large moss-affected spots have appeared all over the lawn, it is necessary to treat it and the areas close to the moss with an aqueous solution of ferrous sulfate.

Garden

Soil preparation

Dig up areas untreated in the fall as soon as the soil "ripens". It can be defined as follows. Squeeze a handful of earth from a depth of 8-10 cm in your hand and throw it from a height of 1 meter. If the lump remains intact, then there is an excess of moisture in the soil, and the processing should be delayed. If the lump falls apart evenly, you can start digging. In this case, break the earth with a shovel and immediately harrow. The best soil cultivation is considered, in which the clods are the size of a hazelnut.

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Dug or plowed soil in the fall should be harrowed as early as possible. Use a rake to loosen the soil to a depth of 5-8 cm in the area allotted for sowing and planting vegetables, and especially carefully for sowing small-seeded crops. This disrupts the soil crust and destroys the capillaries through which moisture rises to the surface and evaporates. When loosening, scatter mineral fertilizers and ash.

Heated greenhouse

Planted - onion-turnip on a feather, cucumbers (10.3-1.5), tomatoes (10.3..30.4), radishes (5.2..20.4), head salad.

Solar greenhouse

Sow: radish, lettuce, dill, etc. green (as compaction).

The soil under the radishes should be loose and moist. In phase 1-2 of this leaf, it is thinned out.

Tomatoes are planted (25.4-15.5 ≥15 ° at a depth of 10 cm) in the cold with additional. shelter, Mexican physales (20.4-30.5 ≥5 °), strawberry (25.4-25.5 ≥5 °). Conditions favorable for planting tomato and cucumber, when the soil at a depth of 10 cm at 8 o'clock in the morning is warmed up to + 10-15 ° С.

Tomato seedlings are planted in a permanent place when the soil in the greenhouse at a depth of 10 cm warms up to + 15˚С. (In the south, Volgograd region, this is April 15 ± 5 days).

Harvested: lettuce, radish, dill, green onion feathers, Chinese cabbage, spinach.

In the south, seedlings of heat-loving crops are grown in a solar-heated greenhouse. To better warm up the soil, cover it with plastic wrap. When the soil temperature warms up to + 20 ° C, the film is removed. Weeds are destroyed by harrowing with a rake. You need to sow right away to keep the moisture and warmth of the soil. The seeds are sprinkled with a layer of humus 1-1.5 cm, watered with warm water, covered with a film. Soil temperature favorable for seed germination is 24-26˚С.

Cucumber, zucchini, melon, watermelon in the south are sown at the end of April, to be planted in May. Grow pumpkin seedlings only in pots (or in cassettes).

Open ground

Sowing. For planting early crops, choose early maturing varieties. Considering the weather conditions and soil temperature, when sowing in open ground, if necessary, use temporary shelters (marked with (*) below.

Sown outdoors: anise (25.4-15.5), beans (10.4 * -15.5), rutabagas (20.4..15.6), peas (15.4 * .. 5.7 ≥6 °), leaf mustard (10.4..10.8) with sheltered ., daikon (5.4 * .. 5.8), early w / c cabbage (15.4 * -10.5), early Peking cabbage (15.4 * .. 10.5), coriander (20.4..10.8), early watercress (10.4 .. 10.9), onions from seeds (15.4-10.5), from sets (20.4-15.5), sets from seeds (1-15.4), onions (15.4, 15.7, 10.9), shallots from sets (15.4) , chives (5.4 * -20.5), chard (10.4 * -12.5 ≥9 °), early and medium carrots (10.4..5.8), oat root (5-30.4), parsnip (10.4 * -25.4), parsley (Apr.), radish (10.4 * .. 25.5), spring-summer radish (25.4-20.5), turnips (20.4 * -10.5), head and leaf lettuce (10.4 * .. 20.8), romaine lettuce (10.4 * 30.7), lettuce Endive (Apr. *), scorzonera (1-30.4 *), asparagus (1-25.4 *), cumin (Apr.), dill (1.4 * .. 31.7), spinach (10.4 * .. 20.7), sorrel (Apr *).

Read the seasonal sowing dates for vegetable crops here.

Dry seeds are sown in a little warmed up land. It is recommended to add superphosphate to the grooves, 2 g per 1 running meter. This will improve the germination and cold resistance of plants. For long-growing seeds, add some fast-growing seeds, for example, radishes, lettuce or mustard leaves. They, like beacons, will show the rows before the emergence of the main crop. Thanks to this, you can quickly loosen the aisles.

Sowing onions early will yield a larger yield of large bulbs. Seeds are soaked before sowing. They are sown in moist soil to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. Seedlings will appear in 7-10 days (and not after 15-20, as when sowing with dry seeds).

Sowing for sowing is carried out in rows located every 10-15 cm (seeding rate 6-8 g / m2). Sowing on a turnip (1 g / m2) is carried out with a distance between plants of 20-25 cm.

After planting the seeds, the crops are lightly rolled or trampled down, then mulched with peat or humus with a layer of 1 cm.

Carrot seeds can be checked for odor: fresh seeds have the highest germination rate and smell stronger than old ones. Carrot seeds retain good germination for 2 years.

Placing the carrot bed in a windy area will reduce the chances of a carrot fly colonizing it. When choosing a place for sowing carrots, one must remember that large doses of fresh manure or other organic fertilizers lead to branching of root crops.

Lettuce is sown to a depth of 1-1.5 cm (30-40 seeds per running meter).

Delicate and tasty radish root vegetables are obtained in sunny areas. Sowing depth 2 cm. Distance between seeds 3-4 cm. Distance between rows 7-8 cm.

Mid-season cabbage can be sown in the second half of April in holes of 3-4 seeds.

Peas are sown 1-2 weeks later than the beginning of vegetable sowing (their seedlings may suffer from spring frosts). Sowing is carried out at the rate of 25 - 30 g of seeds per 1 m2. For low-growing pea varieties, the row spacing is 30 cm, for tall ones - 35-40 cm. The sowing depth is at least 5 cm. The seeds are spread along the bottom of the furrow every 2-3 cm and lightly pressed against the soil.

Parsnip seeds retain their high germination capacity only for 1 year. For the ripening of the root crop, this plant needs 6-7 months. Therefore, it is sown early. However, cold and damp soil can cause seeds to rot.

If you warm up the beds (with a non-woven or foil cover) and sow the germinated seeds, then the first harvest of radish and lettuce is obtained in early May.

On winter crops, overseeding is carried out, as well as feeding the plants with ammonium nitrate (10-15 g / m2 of soil).

Sowing of heat-loving crops is beginning in the south. Early sowing is best done on the southern slope.

Fast-growing crops are selected for compaction, but only compatible with the main one.

Sowing of the main and compact crops can be carried out simultaneously and at different times. For example, plant onions, radishes, or lettuce in the aisles of carrots. Sowing radish and lettuce together is effective against cruciferous flea beetles. In a furrow 5-10 cm wide, sow radish seeds evenly, lightly sprinkling them with soil. Then along the same furrow - lettuce seeds. In the south, in order to protect cucumber plants from the wind, from the windward side, but not from the sun, 1-3 rows of sweet corn are laid in late April - early May (simultaneously with early sowing of cucumber or 1-2 weeks earlier).

Landing. Planting: early potatoes from 15-20 April with shelter. Only in the soil warmed up at a depth of 10 cm to 7–8 ° С Jerusalem artichoke (April), horseradish - lateral roots (April), spring garlic (17.4-15.5). Seedlings (with cover if necessary): rutabagas (20.4..15.6), early cabbage (15.4-10.5), early broccoli (25.4..30.6), kohlrabi (5.4..20.8), early Beijing (15.4 .. 10.5), colored (25.4..25.7), onion (15.4-10.5), chives (5.4-20.5), lemon balm. (20.4-20.5), peppermint (Apr.), Squash (20.5-10.6 ≥11 °), root and leaf parsley (Apr.), Early head salad (10.4..20.8), romaine lettuce (10.4..30.7 ), beetroot (20.4..20.6) ≥8 °, celery root (25.4-10.5), endive (Apr.), tarragon (5.4-30.6). By dividing the bush: lemon balm, peppermint, tarragon (5.4-30.6).

Start planting sprouted potato tubers of early varieties when the soil at a depth of 7-10 cm warms up to + 5-8 ° C. In the middle lane, from mid-April, early potatoes are planted under a film, at the end of the month - in open ground. They do it before in the south. After light germination, darken the tubers 2-3 days before planting. In them, under the influence of light, inhibitors were formed (suppressing the growth of seedlings). Now it is better to deactivate them. Plant the tubers carefully to avoid damaging the shoots and roots. It is good to immerse tubers with overgrown shoots before planting in a peat or soil mash. It is recommended to add humus or compost, ash, mineral fertilizers to the holes or furrows, and be sure to mix them with the soil.

Dig the roots of 1-2-year-old horseradish plants and cut the lateral roots from the bottom of the rhizome (form fewer flower stems and give tender roots). In order not to confuse the ends and correctly place the cutting when planting, cut its upper side perpendicularly, and the lower side obliquely. Dormant buds are located along the length of the cuttings, because of which the roots branch out, and the harvest falls. To destroy lateral dormant buds, wipe the cuttings with coarse burlap before planting, without touching the edges. Leaves develop from the upper part, roots develop from the lower. Plant the cuttings at a distance of 25-30 cm at an angle of 45 ° to the soil surface. Plant to such a depth that the upper perpendicularly cut end of the cutting is covered with soil with a layer of 4-5 cm. Thoroughly compact the soil.

Care. To obtain bleached asparagus shoots, three-year-old and older plants are spud. But first you need to feed them with ammonium nitrate (20 g / m2).

Chicory root crops can make a weed, so it is carefully dug up.

They remove the winter shelter from the beds where the onion sets were planted before winter to obtain turnip onions, and the samples and large sets on a green feather. To accelerate the growth of leaves, a frame (40-50 cm) shelter is installed above the bed. With the emergence of seedlings, plants are fed with nitrogen (10 g per 1 m2) and potash (15 g per 1 m2) fertilizers.

Top dressing is also useful for perennial vegetable crops (15-20 g of ammonium nitrate, 20 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium salt per square meter).

Cleaning. The feathers of perennial onions are cut off: first a batun, a little later - a slime and fragrant, a little later - a chives. Under a temporary shelter in the north and in the middle lane, and in the south in the open field, they collect leaves of sour and spinach sorrel, parsley leaves.

Strawberry plantation

Strawberries are planted (1-30.4). After removing diseased and dry leaves, feed (N4 P4 K6), if this is not done in March, loosen, renew the mulching layer. Spray (at least with a dense pink solution of potassium permanganate) plants and soil against strawberry mites, mold, gray rot and leaf spot.

The use of EM technology in farming allows you to effectively fight against plant diseases and pests.

Traditionally spilled with another approved drug, read here.


We create optimal conditions

Parsley does not like cold, but too much heat is destructive for a plant. A mode at a temperature of + 15-20 ° C is considered comfortable for her. If the batteries are too hot, dry heat will damage the plant. Move the seedling containers as close to the window as possible or shield them with a transparent screen. Do not seek to compensate for the increased temperature by frequent watering - from excess moisture, the rhizomes will begin to rot.

The plant will begin to feel more comfortable if you install a humidifier in the immediate vicinity or place a container filled with snow and ice cubes next to the container. When the contents begin to melt, a natural drop in temperature will occur.

You should not place the container in the kitchen - there are frequent changes in humidity and temperature in this room. The plant needs a more stable environment.

Parsley is photophilous; for normal growth and development, it requires a day of light with a minimum duration of twelve hours. Lack of lighting will negatively affect the development and growth of seedlings. We'll have to resort to artificial lighting: you can use not only agro- or phyto-lamps, but also ordinary LED ones. The main thing is that the power of the lamps does not exceed 40 watts.

Place lighting fixtures at some height from the plants. You can increase efficiency by installing a reflective screen.


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