Forest or wild pear
Forest pear is one of the forms of common pear. Grows in the form of a tree or shrub. A pear tree can grow up to 20 meters in height, a bush pear does not exceed 4 meters and has thorns on the branches. The plant has a scaly bark covered with cracks. The pear has a spreading and dense crown, leaves are rounded, from 2 to 7 cm in length and 1.5-2 cm in width, with elongated petioles. The sheet is glossy at the top, matte at the bottom. Pear flowers can be either single or collected in shields of 6-12 flowers. Their color has shades of white and pink. Fruits reach 4 cm in diameter, pear-shaped. The length of the stalk is 8-12 cm. The fruits are rich in vitamins of group B, C, various acids, sugars and tannins.
The pear begins to bloom in late April - early May. Fruits are harvested in August-September. Adult plants of 8-10 years old begin to bear fruit.
The fruits of the forest pear are very well kept. They can keep their appearance for 5 months. Each tree gives up to 40 kg of harvest per season. Good fruiting is periodic and repeats every two years.
Description of wild pear
The growing area of the forest pear is quite large. The plant takes root well both in the steppe zone and in the forest-steppe. The forest pear is also common in the regions of the Caucasus and Central Asia, it is found in Moldova and Azerbaijan. There are both lonely growing shoots and group ones. In areas favorable for growth, the pear forms whole forests. The crop is drought tolerant due to its strong root system that extends deep into the depths, thrives on light soils rich in nutrients. Propagated mainly by seeds. In nature, the spread of seeds is facilitated by wild animals that feed on pear fruits. Unfavorable conditions favor the development of root shoots, which often take root, forming a separate plant. Also, forest pear can have dense pneumatic growth.
The plant lives from 150 to 300 years. Varietal trees have a much shorter life span - 50 years. Pear fruits are widely used. They are suitable for making compotes, fruit drinks, jams and wines. They can be eaten both raw and boiled or dried. Suitable as food for pets and wildlife. The early flowering time and its abundance make the pear an excellent honey plant.
Not only the fruits of the plant are appreciated, but also its wood. It has a high density and a beautiful reddish brown color. Often used to make furniture, tableware, and decorative items. The bark of the pear also has a use: it is used as a natural brown dye. A yellow pigment is obtained from the leaves of the plant.
The forest pear is well suited for roadside landscaping and forestry in the steppe regions, and is also used by breeders.
Pear variety "Forest Beauty"
Forest Beauty is the most popular pear variety. Place of distribution: Ukraine and Belarus. Zoned seedlings are well accepted in the Lower Volga region and the Caucasus. Representatives of this variety reach a height of 10 meters, have a wide pyramidal, not very dense crown. Straight shoots are often thick and dark red in color. There are quite a few lentils on the shoots. The leaf is small, oval, with a finely serrated edge. The flowers of the tree come in different shades, from white to pink. This pear variety is resistant to temperature changes in spring. The Forest Beauty is partially self-fertile.
The shape of the fruit of this variety is ovoid. Fruits are yellow with a red tint, covered with gray dots. They have a thin, rough skin and juicy aromatic pulp. The taste is sweet and sour. Pear fruits are very aromatic. The ripening period begins in the second half of August. For better preservation of the crop, it is recommended to remove the fruits a week before ripening. Otherwise, the crop will quickly overripe, which will lead to its early deterioration. The fruits of the Forest Beauty can be eaten directly or used to prepare compote.
The pear of this variety bears fruit 6-7 years after planting. The plant is unpretentious. It grows well on dry soils and moderately moist, but loose substrates rich in nutrients are best suited. The trees of the Forest Beauty are frost-resistant.
The description of this pear variety is in many ways similar to the forest pear, the only difference is its high frost resistance.
Another pear variety is wild pear. Trees of this variety reach 20 meters in height. Distribution area: the south of Russia, the Caucasus, Central Asia and Kazakhstan. It grows both in forests, mainly deciduous, and on the edges. It can form whole pear forests, but mainly grows in single trees. Wild pear is a good vigorous stock. It goes well with cultivated varieties. Wild pear leaves are shiny, oval. Flowers are white, sometimes pink, up to 3 cm in diameter, forming umbrellas.
Flowering occurs in the middle to the end of the calendar spring, when the plant begins to release leaves. The fruits are pear-shaped or round in shape. Sweet and sour pears can only be eaten after 2-3 months of storage. The harvest falls at the end of August. Adult plants 7-8 years old begin to bear fruit. The yield varies from 10 to 50 kg per tree. On average, the plant lives 60-90 years, but there are also three-hundred-year-old copies.
Wild pear can grow both as a tree, whose height reaches 20 meters, and as a shrub, with a height of no more than 4 meters. The forest pear has characteristic thorny branches and small fruits.
The crown is extremely spreading and dense. Wild forest pear has a wide growing area and is found both in the northern regions and in the south and the Caucasus. This tree is characterized by unpretentious care, rapid growth, often found in floodplains of rivers and lakes, in forest clearings or on the border of fields and forests.
Despite the small size of the fruits, they reach no more than 4 centimeters in diameter, such a pear is successfully grown by summer residents, which allows them to get a good harvest of fruits. At the same time, the tree will not require any significant care from the gardener.
The lifespan of wild pears can reach 300 years, while varietal varieties live no more than 50 years. The forest pear begins to bear fruit late, so the first harvest can be obtained approximately 10 years after planting. No more than 40 kilograms of fruit can be removed from one mature tree. Of the characteristic features of forest pear fruiting, its pronounced seasonality can be noted.
The amount of vitamins and minerals in the fruit
For many years, specialists in the field of medicine have studied the composition of the fruits of this culture. It has been proven that in wild pears the amount of sugar is 7% per 100 g. They also contain about 5% protein compounds and 4% ash. Some acids are also released, which are so necessary for the proper functioning of the human body (ascorbic, acetic, lactic and citric).
Vitamins, to a greater extent, of groups B and C. It is also necessary to highlight the presence of carotene, but the seeds that are in the fruits contain a large amount of fatty oils that have a positive effect on the appearance of hair, nails and skin (from 15 to 25%) ... The main minerals are phosphorus, iron, zinc, nickel and copper. Some varieties contain vanadium and manganese.
What you can graft a pear on
Pear grafting will not take much time and effort. It's okay to clearly follow all the rules. One of the most important conditions is a correctly selected stock. It must be chosen depending on the qualities that you would like to see at the tree. Pears of other varieties are usually used, but apple, plum or rowan trees can be used.
There are situations when the gardener later realizes that not an ordinary pear was planted, but a wild one. Grafting plants of the same species guarantees:
- Improved performance by combining the best qualities of two different varieties
- Acceleration of fruiting
- The ability to replace an unsuccessful variety with new branches.
In this case, it is important to pay attention to the timing of fruit ripening. They must match for the best result.
Another option is to use mountain ash as a stock. This is done if the site is too wet or located in a wetland. The pear is not able to grow quietly in such conditions, so it is grafted onto a tree that tolerates dampness perfectly.
The main advantages of this choice are:
- The crop appears in 2-3 years
- The pear becomes frost-resistant and begins to bloom earlier
- The size of the tree does not exceed 2 meters, so it is much easier to harvest the fruits.
- Pear survival rate - 80-90%.
Important! Rowan is quite sensitive to a lack of moisture; in hot and dry summers, it needs to be watered more often.
There is only one drawback - a thickening forms at the vaccination site, due to which some problems may appear. This is due to the fact that the trunk of the pear is thicker than the trunk of the mountain ash.
Rowan can be used wild, varietal and sweet-fruited. The taste and size of the resulting crop depends on this. The plant can be grafted on both a young plant and an adult at a height of no more than 20 cm. The leaves of the tree must be pinched off in order to reduce the evaporation of water, it is important to leave at least 25% of rowan branches.
Not every pear variety is compatible with quince, it is important to pay attention to this. If the type of tree is not suitable, it is better to choose a different stock.
The most commonly used dwarf trees are:
- This way you get more harvest.
- The fruits are large and very sweet.
- It is easier to care for the plant
- Fruits appear earlier.
A pear is grafted either on a varietal quince or on seedlings. The process itself does not take much time. Its results are almost always encouraging. Even for beginners, the pear takes root and gives fruit after 2-4 years.
The difficulty lies in the choice of soil and in the care of the plant after the manipulation. It is important to water the plant frequently and place it on fertile soil. It is better to plant the tree in a part of the garden that is hidden from the wind. This will ensure the survival of the plant during frost. The optimal timing for the manipulation is April-May.
It must be fed with nitrogen fertilizers, some of which are applied before the flowering period, and the second - 2-3 weeks after it. After 5-6 years, you can add potassium sulfate and ash. This will ensure a great harvest for years to come.
One of the most popular methods is grafting a pear cut onto an apple tree. In 90% of cases, both plants develop successfully, the fruits increase in size, their taste changes for the better.
Occasionally, the compatibility of the rootstock and the scion does not completely match, which is why the cutting stops growing and does not bear fruit. To avoid this, they graft the plants with an intercalary insert.
The pear can be grafted onto most cultivated plants, including:
- Cherry plum
Use in traditional medicine
Alternative medicine uses the fruits, branches and leaves of the tree. When coughing a cold, traditional medicine recommends drinking a broth of dried wild pears. The remedy helps with edema. A decoction of the branches relieves diarrhea. Folk recipes:
- In case of osteochondrosis, a decoction of 5 pear branches, 10 cm long, is prepared. The raw material is poured with 1 liter of water, boiled for 30 minutes over low heat. Remove from the stove, wrap it up, leave for 6 hours. This is the daily rate, it is divided into equal parts, they are drunk during the day. The course of treatment is 1 month.
- Treatment of prostatitis is carried out with dry dried leaves. A glass of leaves is poured with boiling water (0.5 l), insisted for 6 hours, filtered, drunk 3 times a day after meals.
- To normalize the function of the gastrointestinal tract, an infusion of 0.5 cups of leaves and the same number of finely chopped branches is prepared. Pour a mixture of 0.5 liters of water, boil for 20 minutes. Wrap up, insist 12 hours, filter. It is better to cook the broth in the evening, in the morning you get the daily dose of the drug. It is divided into three doses, drunk 30 minutes before meals. A decoction of dried fruits, which is taken in the morning on an empty stomach (200 g), is useful for the digestive system.
- With dry eczema, lotions from dry leaves of wild pear help to relieve inflammation and accelerate the regeneration of skin tissue. To prepare the product, take a glass of raw materials, place it in a thermos, pour 1 liter of boiling water, leave it to cool completely. Then the broth is filtered, moistened with a clean napkin, applied to the affected area, fixed with a bandage or plaster. Remove the napkin after drying. The procedure is carried out at least 5 times a day.
- Lotions based on pear leaves are used for all kinds of dermatitis.
Pear culture in the USSR
In the USSR, pears have been bred since ancient times. In the Crimea, this valuable fruit species was cultivated by the Greek colonists long before our era. The homeland of the common wild pear, from which most of our cultivated varieties originated, is, in all likelihood, the Caucasus.
One of the earliest written monuments testifying to the pear culture in Russia is the collection "Domostroy", published in the 16th century.
The pear growing in the European part of the USSR is less winter-hardy and more thermophilic than the apple tree, therefore the northern border of its industrial culture runs much further south than the northern border of the industrial apple culture, and somewhat south of the distribution border of the common wild pear (Pirus communis L.), namely: along the line Volochisk - Proskurov - Vinnitsa - Uman - Krivoy Rog - Zaporozhye - Rostov - Astrakhan. The northern boundary of the growth of cultivated pears coincides with the northern boundary of the industrial culture of the apple tree, that is, it passes along the Leningrad - Yaroslavl - Gorky - Ufa - Chkalov line, rising significantly north of the distribution border of the common wild pear.
As with other fruit species, thanks to the work of IV Michurin, who created a number of valuable varieties, the industrial pear culture is steadily advancing to the north and east. So, in the regions of the middle zone of the RSFSR (Voronezh, Kursk, Orlov, Tambov, etc.), where mainly summer pears were previously bred, winter and autumn varieties are currently cultivated (Bere Zimnyaya Michurina, Bere Oktyabrya, etc.).
On the territory of the USSR, the pear is distributed unevenly. According to the prevalence of this breed and its economic importance, the territory of the USSR can be divided into 4 zones:
- southern zone of industrial pear culture,
- transition zone,
- middle zone,
- northeastern zone.
Southern zone covers all southern regions of the USSR, including the southwestern and southern regions of Ukraine, the southern part of the Rostov region and the southern part of the Astrakhan region, as well as the Central Asian republics. The northern border of this zone can be conditionally drawn along the line Volochisk - Proskurov - Vinnitsa - Uman - Krivoy Rog - Zaporozhye - Rostov - Astrakhan. Considerable areas are occupied by pear trees. So, for example, in the Crimea and in some regions of the North Caucasus, its share reaches 25-30%. This is a zone of industrial culture of the best dessert pears and many local agricultural varieties.
In the southernmost regions of the zone (Crimea, Caucasus, Uzbekistan), first-class dessert varieties with a predominance of winter varieties are successfully cultivated:
Transition zone includes the southwestern part of Belarus, the northern and central regions of Ukraine, the southern regions of the Kursk and Voronezh regions, the northern part of the Rostov region and the southern part of the Stalingrad region.The northern border of the zone runs along the line Minsk - Gomel - Belgorod - Rossosh - Stalingrad.
In this zone, the proportion of pears, as they move from south to north, falls rather sharply, going down to 2-3% in the northernmost regions. The pear culture here is based on local varieties of summer and autumn ripening and is mainly of a consumer nature, rising to the level of industrial culture only in some of the most favorable regions. Winter varieties are almost absent here. Of the high-quality dessert varieties, only the most winter-hardy ones are cultivated here: Lesnaya Krasavitsa and Lyubimitsa Klappa, and in the more southern regions of the zone - Bere Ligel. Of the varieties of a more southern range, Ilyinka and Panna are widespread in many areas of this transition zone, and in the southern part of the Byelorussian SSR - Bere Slutskaya.
Middle zone covers the areas of the middle zone and the Middle Volga region. Its northern border runs through Leningrad - Yaroslavl - Gorky - Ufa - Chkalov. Here the pear is very rare, found in gardens as separate trees. Mainly cultivated in this zone are undemanding Central Russian summer varieties: Bessemyanka, Tonkovotka, Limonka, Sapezhanka, etc. From autumn - autumn bergamot and its local varieties: Kursk Bergamot, Voronezh and Volga, Malikovka, etc.
Currently, Michurin varieties are beginning to spread in this zone:
Northeastern zone includes the northern regions of the European part of the USSR, as well as the regions of the Urals, the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. Here, pear culture is currently almost completely absent due to the severity of the climate. In these areas, it is possible to cultivate pear varieties obtained on the basis of the highly winter-resistant Ussuri pear, in which there are already certain successes in the Far East, where a number of highly winter-resistant varieties have been developed by Soviet breeders (Lukashev, Efremov, Shuranov).
The main areas of pear culture in the RSFSR are the Crimea and the Caucasus.
Crimea is one of the most favorable areas for pear culture. There are significant areas under the pear tree. In Crimea, the most valuable in terms of taste dessert varieties are successfully cultivated - Decanka winter, Bere Ardanpon, Pass-Crassan, Olivier de Serre, Bergamot Esperena, etc.
According to the 1945 census of gardens, more than 70% of the Crimean pear plantations are the following 8 industrial varieties (in percent):
- Bere Bosc - 19.8%
- Bere Ardanpon - 13.3%
- Williams - 11.3%
- Curé - 6.5%
- Winter decanter - 6.4%
- Winter grand piano - 6.0%
- Saint Germain - 4.0%
- Clapp's Favorite - 4.0%
Other dessert varieties in Crimea are bred:
Local Crimean varieties are often found in old gardens:
- Kirez armud,
- Mison et al.
The best quality pears are provided by the Alushta region and the Kachinskaya valley.
Caucasus - an area of enormous natural resources and, in particular, a large abundance of wild pears. The wild common pear (Pirus communis L.) forms here continuous forests, occupying hundreds and thousands of hectares. Such massifs stretch along the foothills of the Krasnodar Territory, in the North Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, in the Transcaucasus. Significant thickets of wild pears and local varieties are found in the mountainous part of the Black Sea coast, in the area from Gelendzhik to Sochi, especially in the areas of the Mikhailovsky Pass, the Shakha River and the village. Krasnaya Polyana. Dagestan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Abkhazia abound in wild pears.
Such an abundance of wild pears, as in the Caucasus, is not found anywhere in the USSR, and perhaps in the entire globe. Cultivated pears are also ubiquitous here, although due to the large heterogeneity of natural conditions, not all regions of the Caucasus are favorable for breeding this breed. A strip of wide pear culture, as well as apple trees, lies along the northern foothills of the main ridge and in the mountainous part of Transcaucasia, mainly in the east. But it should be noted that the pear culture in the Caucasus is still underdeveloped, high-quality breeding varieties are not yet widespread here.
The natural conditions of many regions of the Soviet south are quite favorable for the development of a broad industrial culture of pears.
Medicinal properties of wild pear
Pears have a fixing and diuretic effect. Effective for kidney stone disease. People also take decoctions of dried pears for coughs, diarrhea and colds. Pear leaves contain arbutin glycoside, which has anti-inflammatory, disinfectant and diuretic effects (as well as bearberry and lingonberry leaves), therefore they are used in the form of a decoction (10 g of dry leaves per glass of water) for cystitis. Arbutin irritates the kidney tissue, so it is not prescribed for acute kidney disease. It has also been found to lower blood sugar.