Red currant: planting and care, pruning, reproduction, description of varieties, photos
Fruit and berry plants
Red currant (Latin Ribes rubrum), or garden currant, or common currant - deciduous shrub of the Gooseberry family. In nature, red currants grow in the forest zone of Eurasia, forming thickets on the edges, along the banks of rivers and streams. In culture, the Dutch began to grow red currants back in the 5th century, and not as a berry bush, but as an ornamental plant. That is why red currants are much more popular in Europe than black ones.
In Muscovy, red currant appeared only in the 15th century.
Planting and caring for red currants
- Landing: in September or mid to late April.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: slightly acidic or neutral chernozems, forest soils with a high humus content or loam.
- Watering: regular and sufficient, especially during the period of active growth and formation of ovaries (early June), as well as during the period of berry filling (late July or early August). Consumption - 20-30 liters of water per m²: the soil should be saturated to a depth of 30-40 cm.
- Top dressing: in April, urea is added to the soil, in June - slurry or a solution of poultry droppings, although you can fertilize the soil with a mineral complex. In summer, on cloudy days or in the evenings, foliar dressing is carried out on the leaves with solutions of trace elements - boric acid, zinc sulfate, copper sulfate, manganese sulfate and ammonium molybdenum. In early October, the soil around the bushes is dug up with organic matter, potash and phosphorus fertilizers.
- Cropping: in early spring or after leaf fall.
- Reproduction: layering, dividing the bush and cuttings.
- Pests: the plant can be affected by blackcurrant fruit, gooseberry yellow and pale-footed sawflies, currant gall midges, glass mites, kidney and spider mites, leaf gall and gooseberry shoot aphids, gooseberry moth, moth and biennial leafworm.
- Diseases: anthracnose, white spot, European powdery mildew, terry (overgrowth, reversal), necrylate drying of shoots, striped mosaic, goblet and columnar rust, gray rot.
Read more about growing red currants below.
Red currant bushes reach a height of 1 to 2 m. The root system of red currants is quite powerful. Its shoots are yellowish or gray, wood is green with a light core. The leaves of the red currant are three to five-lobed, smooth and shiny on the upper side, and on the lower side, a lighter shade and sometimes with pubescence along the veins. Nondescript red-brown or yellow-green flowers blooming in May are collected in a brush. Red currant fruits - juicy and sour-tasting red berries up to 1 mm in diameter, collected in bunches.
Red and black currants are close relatives. They are also related to white currants and gooseberries. In our orchards, red currants are grown as often as black currants, strawberries and raspberries, and much more often than blackberries, blueberries and blueberries, which are just starting out in hobby gardens.
Red currants bloom much later than black ones, therefore they are less likely to suffer from recurrent frosts. It tolerates drought more easily and, with proper care, gives richer yields. The red currant bush lives for 30-35 years. Almost all varieties of culture are self-fertile.
From this article you will learn how to plant and care for red currants - how and when to water them, how to feed them, how to cut red currants, how to treat them against diseases and pests, and whether red currants can be grown in areas with a cool climate. In addition, we will give you a description of the red currant varieties, so you will surely be able to choose the perfect varieties for your area.
Planting red currants
When to plant
The optimal time for planting red currants is September. If for some reason you were unable to plant red currants in the fall, you can postpone the planting in the spring - to mid or late April.
Since red currants are very light-requiring, they need to be grown on a well-lit and ventilated southern slope. The best soils for her are black soil, forest soils with a high humus content and loams with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction. For planting, choose one- or two-year-old red currant seedlings with an extensive and healthy root system about 20 cm long. Before planting, remove all the leaves from the seedlings and keep their roots in a bucket of water for 2-3 hours.
Planting in autumn
2-3 weeks before the autumn planting, dig a hole with a diameter of 50-60 cm and a depth of about 40 cm.Mix the soil taken out of the hole thoroughly with 8-10 kg of peat or humus, 200 g of superphosphate and 40 g of wood ash or potassium sulfate - this is a calculation for 1 plant. Pour half of the mixture into the hole, and leave the second part next to it. If you are planting several bushes, dig holes for them at a distance of at least 1.5-2 m. When planting red currants along the fence or paths, step back from them at least one and a half meters.
When, after 2-3 weeks, the soil in the hole settles, lower the roots of the seedling into the hole and straighten them. Place the seedling itself straight or at an angle, deepening the root collar by 5-6 cm in order to stimulate the formation of additional roots and renewal shoots. When filling the roots of the seedling with a nutritious earthy mixture, shake it from time to time so that there are no voids in the roots. When the hole is filled up, compact the soil, make a circular furrow around the seedling at a distance of 20 cm and fill it with water several times. After the water is absorbed, mulch the area around the seedling with peat or humus, and cut off the shoots at a height of 10-15 cm, leaving no more than 2-3 buds on each - this measure contributes to the formation of a well-branched bush and the development of a strong root system. Before the seedling takes root, it needs to be watered at least twice a week.
Spring planting of red currants is carried out from mid to late April in the same order as autumn, with one exception: pits for seedlings and a fertile mixture are prepared in the fall, but only organic matter is added to the soil, and phosphorus and potassium are added to it before planting.
Red currant care
How to groom in spring
At the end of March, as soon as the weather permits, it is time for sanitary pruning and the formation of red currant bushes. In April, red currants are fed with urea on wet soil, and then, as soon as the topsoil dries out, they begin to loosen the area around the bushes to a depth of 6-8 cm.If you huddled red currants for the winter, shake off the earth from the bushes. After that, level the surface with a rake and cover the area with a layer of peat 5-10 cm thick.
If frosts return in May, during the flowering period of red currants, you may need to protect the bushes from them with smoke. At the same time, red currants are examined in order to identify specimens infected with terry (overgrowth) - on such plants, bell-shaped flowers become divisible. If you find single double inflorescences, cut them off, but if the entire bush is affected, uproot it without delay.
To prevent red currants from feeling thirsty in the spring, keep the soil on the site in a slightly damp state. Remove weeds while loosening the soil, which should be carried out to a depth of 6-8 cm once every two to three weeks. The row spacings are loosened to a depth of 10-12 cm.
What kind of care is needed in the summer
In June, red currants are fed with organic fertilizers. In addition to root dressing, the bushes are sprayed with a solution of micronutrient fertilizers on the leaves. If you find moth nests, collect them from the bushes and destroy them along with the berries affected by the pest. Most likely, this will have to be done several times.
When the time comes to harvest, pick the red currants as they ripen in whole clusters in small trays or boxes that won't wrinkle. After harvest, currants need mandatory watering, followed by loosening.
In early autumn, you can do vegetative propagation of red currants. At the end of September or a little later, organic and mineral fertilizers are introduced into the pre-moistened soil in the area with red currants, after which the soil is dug up for their embedding.
After leaf fall, the currants are cut off, and if the autumn is dry, the area is irrigated in winter.
Red currant processing
At the beginning of March, red currant bushes need to be awakened from their winter sleep - pour water from a watering can with water heated to 80 ºC. After that, on the still dormant kidneys, they carry out preventive treatment of the bushes for diseases with copper sulfate or Nitrafen. The next prophylactic treatment of red currants against fungal diseases with the same drugs is carried out 10 days after harvest.
During the budding period, for prophylactic purposes, red currants are treated against insect pests with Actellik, Karbofos or Rovikurt. Re-processing is carried out after harvesting.
Despite the fact that red currants, due to their well-developed root system, are much more resistant to arid conditions than black currants, lack of water retards its growth, and during the period of formation and filling of fruits, it often leads to their crushing and even shedding. Therefore, it becomes especially important to regularly and sufficient watering of red currants during the period of active growth and formation of ovaries, that is, in early June, as well as in late July and early August, when the berries are poured.
Watering is carried out at the rate of 20-30 liters per m² of land in order to saturate the soil to a depth of 30-40 cm. Water is poured into circular grooves 10-15 cm deep, made at a distance of 30-40 cm from the bush. You can arrange an irrigation area around each bush by fencing it with an earthen roller 15 cm high. When the well-moistened soil dries up, loosen the area so that a crust does not form on its surface. If you gave yourself the trouble in spring to mulch the land on the site with humus, decomposed peat or rotted manure at the rate of 10-15 kg for each bush, and you will have to water the site and loosen it much less often.
In April, urea is added to the moistened soil on the site for embedding at the rate of 10-15 g per m². In June, red currants are fed with 1 liter of slurry infusion diluted in a bucket of water or a solution of half a liter of bird droppings in 10 liters of water. If you can't find organic matter, add 10-15 g of urea, the same amount of potassium sulfate and 20 g of superphosphate under each bush.
In summer, red currants need foliar feeding with microelements. To do this, dissolve up to 2.5 g of boric acid, 5-10 g of manganese sulfate, 1-2 g of copper sulfate, 2-3 g of ammonium molybdate and the same amount of zinc sulfate in 10 liters of water. Processing of red currant leaves is carried out on a cloudy day or in the evening.
At the beginning of October, red currants are fed for the last time: 10-15 kg of organic fertilizer, 100 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium chloride are added under each bush for digging. Mineral fertilizers can be replaced with a vegetable or fruit and berry mixture at the rate of 500 g for each bush.
Red currant pruning
When to trim
Growing red currants involves regular formative, rejuvenating and sanitary pruning of the bushes. Red currant pruning is done in early spring or late autumn when it is dormant.
The structure of the red currant is similar to the structure of the black one, but its fruiting shoots last twice as long. Fruit buds of red currants are almost always formed on the tops of annual shoots, and its fruits are placed in the upper part of the branches, therefore, when cutting, the tips are by no means cut off. Since the fruiting period of red currant shoots is longer than that of black currant shoots, rejuvenating pruning is not done so often.
Pruning in spring
In a one-year-old red currant seedling, all shoots are shortened by half to the outer bud, forming a compact spherical bush. Since red currant is a very light-loving plant and when the bush thickens sharply loses its yield, its bush within 5-6 years is formed from no more than 15-20 branches, and from the seventh year, in addition to sanitary pruning, involving the removal of unnecessary, diseased, broken or dried branches, it will be necessary to carry out a rejuvenating one - to remove branches that have served their term and regulate the growth of zero shoots.
Of the zero shoots, the most developed and well-located ones are left for renewal, that is, those that grow closer to the bush do not lie on the ground and do not intersect with other shoots. They are shortened by half the length to the outer kidney, directed upwards, and the remaining growths are cut out.
In the fall, after leaf fall, when the red currant bears fruit and enters a dormant period, sanitary pruning of the bushes is carried out: the branches that are broken, affected by the disease, dried out or growing in the wrong direction are removed. If for some reason you didn't do formative pruning in the spring, you can do it in the fall.
Reproduction of red currant
Of course, you can buy red currant seedlings in any market, but there is no guarantee that you will be sold exactly the varieties that you decided to buy. If you don't want to get discouraged, breed yourself. Red currants are propagated vegetatively - by layering, cuttings and dividing the bush.
Reproduction by layering
This is the simplest and most effective way to propagate a culture. For him, a young bush of three, four or five years is chosen, in the early spring they loosen the soil under it, fertilize it, make grooves 8-10 cm deep in the soil, going from the center of the bush, put well-developed one- or two-year shoots in them, reliably fix them in several places with metal hooks and cover the middle part of the layers with soil so that their top remains on the surface. When the shoots developing on the layers reach a height of 10-12 cm, they are spilled twice with an interval of 2-3 weeks with moist, loose soil. All summer long, the layers are watered abundantly, mulching the area around them with organic matter.
In autumn, the rooted and sprouted layers are separated from the mother liquor and, dividing them along the length into separate plants with a root system, are transplanted to a permanent place. In two or three years, the most developed of them will already enter fruiting.
Propagation by cuttings
Cuttings are also a reliable breeding method. Lignified cuttings of red currant rooted easier and faster from annual shoots grown from the root or on two-three-year branches. The thickness of the cutting should be at least 8 mm, and the length - 18-20 cm. The planting material is harvested in the fall, after which the cuttings are placed in a box with wet sand to form root buds and kept for 2.5-3 months at a temperature of 2-3 ºC, and then placed under snow or in a vegetable refrigerator box until spring planting.
Cuttings are planted in open ground in early spring at an oblique distance of 20 cm from each other under plastic bottles or glass jars. The depth of immersion of the cuttings in the ground is as follows: only two buds should remain above the ground, and the rest are immersed in the soil.The soil around the cuttings is compacted and watered, and when it dries up, the site is mulched with humus or fine peat. Rooted cuttings are transplanted to a permanent place in September.
You can propagate currants and green cuttings, however, they take too long to form the root system to the detriment of the ground part, therefore they are planted in a permanent place no earlier than a year later, and, therefore, they enter fruiting later than red currants from lignified cuttings.
Dividing the bush
Usually, this method of reproduction is resorted to when there is a need to transplant a currant bush to another place. First, all sick, old and broken branches are removed from the bush, after which the bush is dug out, divided into parts with a sharp sterile instrument, each of which should have well-developed roots and shoots, then the cuts are processed with crushed coal and the cuttings are planted in the prepared holes for 5- 7 cm deeper than the mother bush grew. After planting, the shoots are shortened to 15-20 cm, watered generously and continue to moisten the soil daily until parts of the bush take root in a new place.
Pests and diseases of red currant
Diseases and their treatment
Diseases of red currant are typical for all Gooseberries. On our site there is an article "Diseases and pests of gooseberries", which describes in detail all the dangers that lie in wait for representatives of this family, so we will not dwell on each disease, but simply remind you of them.
So, red currants are affected by anthracnose, white spot, European powdery mildew, terry (overgrowth, reversion), necrylate drying of shoots, striped mosaic, goblet and columnar rust, gray rot. In the fight against fungal diseases, good results were shown by such fungicides as Bordeaux liquid, Captan, Khomycin, Phtalan, Topsin M, Fundazol, colloidal sulfur, Kuprozan and other drugs with a similar effect. And such viral diseases as terry and mosaic, unfortunately, cannot be cured by any medicine. In the event that the virus has infected only individual branches or inflorescences, cut them out and burn them, but if the whole bush is infected, you will have to get rid of it.
Pests and the fight against them
Just like black, white currants and gooseberries, red currant bushes can be affected by blackcurrant fruit, gooseberry yellow and pale-footed sawflies, currant gall midges, glass mites, kidney and spider mites, leaf gall and gooseberry runoff aphids.
The best insecticides today are Actellik, Karbofos and Rovikurt. Good results in pest control were also shown by Aktara, Metaphos, Etaphos Ambush, Fosfamid, Vofatox, Tedion, Tsidial, Zolon, Antio and others.
We would like to remind you that mostly weakened and unkempt plants are affected by disease or insects, therefore the main protection against diseases and pests is the observance of agricultural practices and timely care. And, of course, preventive treatment of bushes in early spring and after fruiting will not interfere.
Red currant varieties
Red currants are popular all over the world. On an industrial scale, currants are grown in the USA, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Germany, Great Britain, Latvia and Estonia. The demand for culture is caused not only by its taste, but also by the valuable medicinal properties that it possesses. We offer you an acquaintance with the most popular varieties of red currants.
Large-fruited currants are represented by the following varieties:
- Viksne - large sweet red currant of Latvian selection of early ripening period with dark cherry berries and sweet and sour taste. Viksne is a winter-hardy and drought-resistant variety, almost unaffected by diseases and pests. The yield from one bush is 5-7 kg;
- Ural beauty - a high-yielding and winter-hardy self-fertile variety with large red berries of a sweet dessert taste weighing up to 1.7 g. The variety is not damaged by sawflies and moths, it is also resistant to powdery mildew;
- Fertody - self-fertile, fruitful, winter-hardy and resistant to fungi, a variety of Hungarian selection with rounded bright red berries weighing up to 1.2 g of a pleasant sweet and sour taste;
- Darnitsa - large red currant, the weight of the berries of which reaches 1.5 g. A medium-ripening variety, drought-resistant and frost-resistant, high-yielding, rarely affected by diseases. Shiny dark red berries are used both for fresh consumption and for freezing and processing;
- Rondome - high-yielding, anthracnose-resistant, frost-resistant late variety of Dutch selection with large berries of sweet and sour taste, ripening on low compact bushes.
Large-fruited varieties Asora, Obsky sunset, Ilyinka also differ.
The most famous of the sweet varieties are:
- Sugar - aromatic, tasty and sweet red currant that can be eaten straight from the bush. However, the variety is distinguished by low self-fertility, and for good fruiting it needs pollinators - for example, red currant of the Natali variety;
- Red Cross - a medium-ripening variety with large, light-red, dessert-flavored berries that become smaller towards the end of the brush. Unfortunately, the variety is affected by anthracnose;
- Early sweet - a winter-hardy fruitful variety, demanding in the care and fertility of the soil, with evened in size sweet light-red medium-sized berries;
- Svetlana - winter-hardy and productive variety of medium ripening with small rounded berries of light red color with a thin skin;
- Houghton Castle - Western European winter-hardy and fruitful variety with medium-sized red berries and a pleasant taste.
Early varieties of red currant
Early ripening red currant varieties include:
- Victoria - a high-yielding variety of European origin with medium-sized berries of good taste, eaten fresh and suitable for processing;
- Crystal - self-fertile variety with yellowish round berries with transparent skin, good balanced taste, medium to large size;
- Firstborn - frost-resistant, high-yielding and resistant to mycoses, red currants of the Finnish selection, from the bush of which you can remove up to 10 kg of sweet and sour, medium-sized berries, pleasant to the taste. The cultivar is a universal pollinator for self-fertile cultivars;
- Serpentine - a high-yielding variety resistant to diseases and pests with large sweet and sour berries located on long clusters;
- Generous - resistant to anthracnose and kidney mites, high-yielding and winter-hardy red currant with light red, moderately sour berries.
Known early varieties of red currants are also Gollandskaya krasnaya, Rannaya sladkaya, Laturnays, Chulkovskaya, Rachnovskaya and Konstantinovskaya.
There are much more varieties of red currants with an average ripening period than early or late varieties. Of these, the following are most often grown:
- Versailles Red - a high-yielding large-fruited and self-fertile variety with large red berries with a dense skin, used both fresh and processed;
- rose flower - disease-resistant dessert variety with pink, one-dimensional berries of medium size, delicate sweet taste with a slight sourness;
- Buzhanskaya - Ukrainian high-yielding and resistant to mycoses variety with bright red large berries weighing up to 1 g, suitable both for fresh consumption and for freezing and processing;
- Gazelle - a high-yielding winter-hardy and fungus-resistant variety with small but very tasty red berries;
- Krasnaya Andreichenko - self-fertile winter-hardy high-yielding variety, resistant to fungal diseases, with red rounded berries weighing up to 0.8 g of pleasant sweet and sour taste.
In addition to those described, there are other mid-season red currant varieties that are popular in amateur gardening: Purple, Hero, Honduin, Reibi Castle, Star of the North, Natali, Polyana, Samburskaya, Vika, Niva, Nenaglyadnaya and others.
Among the varieties of late ripening, the following are most often cultivated in culture:
- Valentinovka - winter-hardy, high-yielding self-fertile variety, resistant to powdery mildew, with medium-sized, one-dimensional, sour berries with high gelling properties;
- Marmalade - winter-hardy, productive and resistant to anthracnose and powdery mildew, very late ripening variety with orange-red berries of sour taste, medium to large size;
- Osipovskaya - winter-hardy, fruitful and disease-resistant variety of Russian selection with dark red berries of good taste of the same size;
- Dutch red - a hardy, unpretentious, winter-hardy, productive and anthracnose-resistant variety of Dutch selection with medium-sized red berries of a sweet and sour taste with a transparent skin;
- Lapland - winter-hardy, high-yielding self-fertile variety with light red berries of medium and small size and excellent, delicate sweet and sour taste.
In addition to these, late-ripening varieties Dana, Ogonyok, Orlovskaya Zvezda, Pamyatnaya, Orlovchanka, Rosita, Gift of Summer, Ural Dawns and others are grown in culture.
The best varieties of red currants
Considering such criteria as the size of berries, their taste, the amount of vitamins and sugars they contain, as well as the degree of their winter hardiness, Viksne, Gollandskaya krasnaya, Kaskad, Uralskaya krasavitsa and Serpantin can be considered the best varieties of red currants.
Varieties for the Moscow region
Red currants are among the most winter-hardy berry crops and can be successfully grown in cooler climates. Red currants for the Moscow region should have exactly the same quality as winter hardiness. What varieties can we recommend for growing in the Moscow region? The best red currant, besides winter hardiness, should have other advantages - rather large size, high content of vitamin C and sugars, good taste and, preferably, aroma. The varieties with the listed qualities include the following:
- Asya - mid-early high-yielding and disease-resistant variety with dark red berries of medium size sweet and sour taste;
- Natalie - a fruitful self-fertile and winter-hardy variety, characterized by high resistance to diseases and pests. The berries of this variety are large, round, deep red in color and have a sweet and sour taste;
- Jonker van Tets - winter-hardy, high-yielding, disease-resistant self-fertile and early-ripening variety with round or almost pear-shaped large bright red berries of pleasant taste;
- Rachnovskaya - a high-yielding, winter-hardy self-fertile variety, resistant to diseases and pests. The berries of this variety are medium-sized, red, sweet and sour;
- Hope - a very early high-yielding winter-hardy self-fertile variety, resistant to pests and diseases, with rounded purple-red berries of medium size, sweet and sour taste and universal purpose.
Properties of red currant - harm and benefit
Red currant berries are rich in vitamins A, C, E, potassium, iron and selenium, malic and succinic acid, nitrogenous and pectin substances. They are high in antioxidants that can fight cancer cells. What makes red currants useful for humans is primarily the high content of provitamin A in its berries, which is necessary for the health of hair, skin and bones, and also prevents aging.
The presence of a unique substance oxycoumarin in red currants ensures the prevention of heart attacks and has a positive effect on the activity of the cardiovascular system. People suffering from atherosclerosis are shown the daily use of red currants because of the pectins in it, which remove excess cholesterol and thereby prevent the formation of plaques in the vessels.
In addition, red currant improves the functioning of the stomach and intestines, increases sweating, which helps to remove excess salts, toxins and toxins from the body. It has anti-inflammatory, choleretic, antipyretic, hemostatic, cleansing and laxative properties.
With regular use, red currant juice normalizes the level of hemoglobin in the blood, relieves constipation and uric acid salts, and helps pregnant women fight the symptoms of toxicosis - nausea and vomiting. Juice helps athletes to maintain tone and recuperate after the competition. Drinking juice reduces fever in children and adults. It is also indicated for anemia, diabetes mellitus, loss of strength and chronic fatigue.
Compared to many other beneficial berries and fruits for the body, red currant is an allergy-free product - it is prescribed even for dermatitis.
But, despite such obvious benefits of red currant, one cannot remain silent about the fact that it can harm some people. These categories include patients with gastric and duodenal ulcers, acute gastritis, hepatitis, and hemophilia. Regular use of red currants is undesirable for people with increased blood clotting.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Gooseberry family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Fruit Crops
- Information about Berry Crops
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Red currant: how to plant and propagate correctly
Despite the fact that red and black currants belong to the same genus and represent one family, both the appearance and taste of these crops are strikingly different. Planting and caring for red currants also have their own characteristics; the formation of the bushes of this plant is carried out in a different way. How to prune red currants in spring and autumn, as well as how to grow this crop, is described on this page.
Currant is a fast-growing and relatively high-yielding crop, which is a perennial shrub, up to 1.5-2 m in height, its development occurs due to basal shoots. In recent years, interest in red currants has noticeably increased, since it is a rather unpretentious berry crop, it can grow on different types of soils, except for sandy and waterlogged ones.
Check out the photo and description of red currants, as well as recommendations for growing these shrubs in your backyard.
The root system is powerful, highly branched, so red currants can more easily tolerate a lack of moisture in the soil, are more drought-resistant than black ones, but in this case the yield is much lower, and the berries become small. Red currants react negatively to excess moisture. It is more winter-hardy, as it ends growth earlier and has time to better prepare for winter conditions. In severe winters with temperature changes, especially typical for the southern region, the air temperature drops to -35 ... -40 ° С. But in cases of weakening by diseases, there may be freezing of shoots and death of flower buds. During the flowering of red currants in the garden, a decrease in temperature to -3 ° C does not cause serious death of flowers.
Red currants are more light-loving in comparison with black currants. In conditions of shading of a garden or vegetable garden, it grows poorly, bears poorly and is more damaged by diseases and pests.
Most red currant varieties are self-fertile, able to pollinate with their pollen and produce a good harvest. But in cases of cross-pollination, the number, size and weight of the berries increase significantly. care when caring for red currants, remember that favorable conditions for pollination and fertilization of shrubs develop only in places that are well protected from the action of winds. From this location, the currant suffers less and overwinters better in winter without snow.
Berries of red currant are 3-4 times poorer in vitamins in comparison with black currant, but in terms of sugar content it is in no way inferior to black (6-10%) and significantly surpasses it in organic acids (3-4%).
Red currant berries and products of its processing are very useful for physical and mental fatigue, colds and infectious diseases, diseases of the blood vessels, spring vitamin deficiencies.
Look at the photo of red currant: these shrubs are also extremely decorative, especially during flowering and fruiting:
Planting, care and reproduction of red currants is akin to planting, care and reproduction of pink and white currants.
Dutch pink. Average ripening period. When ripe, it has an original pink color of berries. The variety is self-fertile. Productivity and taste are high. Winter-hardy variety, resistant to pests and diseases.
Dutch white. Early ripening. The bush is medium in size, sparse, weakly spreading. The leaves are very small. Berries - 0.5-0.7 g, creamy, the skin on them is so transparent that the seeds shine through. The taste is wonderful, sweet. Variety Gollandskaya white is unpretentious, drought-resistant, very productive. By mid-July, the bush looks like an amber tree in a green frame. Disadvantages: the variety is not universal, the compote is colorless, the jelly is also very unstable to anthracnose.
We grow red and white currants
The homeland of red and white currants are Europe and Siberia, which is why they feel so at ease in our gardens. We often read hymns of praise written in honor of the black currant. There is no doubt that it is very useful, but her sisters are not much inferior to her both in taste and in healing. For example, red currant berries remove salts of mercury, cobalt, tin, lead from the body... A pound of red currants contains as much vitamin C as three large lemons.
Wild currants can be found in the mountains, in forest glades, in bushes. Red currant fruits contain vitamins C, A, B1, B2, PP, K, E, trace elements, acids, pectins.
In the diet of children and the elderly, red currants are simply irreplaceable. It also helps adults to maintain health, gives athletes additional strength.
Our grandmothers and great-grandmothers willingly used the healing properties of red and white currants to treat household members. Currant juice, diluted with water, not only quenches thirst at elevated temperatures, but also acts as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agent.
Red currant, or Common currant, or Garden currant (Latin Ribes rubrum) Is a small deciduous shrub of the Gooseberry family (Grossulariaceae).
Red and white currants have the same developmental biology, but slightly different from the biology of black currants. White currant is a type of red and differs from it only in the color and taste of the fruit.
The distribution area is in the forest zone throughout Eurasia, where it grows wild. It is found on forest edges, prefers the banks of rivers or streams, forms thickets.
The root system penetrates the ground as deeply as that of black currants. Every year, shoots grow from the base, of which the strongest are left to form a bush, the weak ones are removed.
Leaves are alternate, five-, three-lobed or whole. Fruit buds are numerous. On annual wood, they are located singly, and on biennial and perennial - in groups. The fruit bud, laid in the axil of a leaf of an annual shoot, opens in the spring and gives a flower brush, and from it a fruiting ringlet develops later, which lives somewhat longer than that of black currant varieties. Red and white currants enter the growing season earlier than black currants. The fruit is a multi-seeded berry. In red, it has a red, dark red, light red or pink color, and in white it is whitish or yellowish. The shape of the berry is round, oval and pear-shaped.
Red and white currants contain sugar, acids, aromas and vitamins. The latter are noticeably less than that of black, especially vitamin C. Fruits are used for fresh consumption, as well as for making jams, juices, marmalade, jelly, etc.
Site selection and soil preparation
Red and white currants are quite unpretentious: they can be grown on soils of different fertility. She cannot stand only damp, swampy and heavily shaded places.... All known varieties are practically self-fertile, but, like many berry crops, currants give maximum yields with additional pollination with pollen from other varieties.
Best of all, this culture will bear fruit in open, well-lit places. In low light, the berries are less colored and less sweet. Currant prefers loose, light loamy and sandy loamy soils, neutral or slightly acidic in acidity.
If the soil is waterlogged for a long time in the spring or the place is low, then red and white currants should be planted in low beds
Planting and leaving
Currant loves sunny places, protected from cold winds, fertile and loose soil.
Saplings are best planted in early autumn, at the very beginning of September. It is dangerous to miss the deadline: the seedlings will not have time to take root and prepare for winter.
The planting scheme depends on the characteristics of the variety, which dictate what the adult plants will be like. For compact, straight-growing bushes, 1–1.25 x 1.25 m are enough. Spreading, lush ones need a distance of at least 1.5 m. Most modern varieties are highly self-fertile.
To plant currants, you need to dig a hole 40 cm deep and 50-60 cm wide in advance, 2-3 weeks in advance (so that the soil we fill it with has time to settle). Thoroughly mix the earth with organic and mineral fertilizers: 8-10 kg of compost (humus, peat), 150-200 g of superphosphate, 30-40 g of potassium sulfate or wood ash. The plant can be planted straight or obliquely for better additional root formation.
After planting, pour abundantly and mulch with humus or peat. Then the branches need to be cut tightly, leaving 10-15 cm with 3-4 buds.
Top dressing will be useful for currants: organic matter, nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus. But she does not tolerate chlorine, and complex fertilizers must be selected taking into account this feature.
Abundant, but not too frequent watering is necessary during the growth of shoots, flowering, fruiting and in the fall, after picking berries.
Currant bushes are winter-hardy. Under the snow, they are not afraid of frost down to -45 ° С. Spring frosts, which damage flowers and ovaries, are much more dangerous. In such cases, it is recommended to cover the bushes with non-woven material.
Pruning and shaping the bush
Red and white currants are very demanding on lighting, bear fruit poorly when thickened. Red and white currant pruning has some differences from black currant pruning based on differences in developmental and fruiting biology. Fruit buds of red and white currants are mainly formed at the base of annual shoots, as well as on ringlets - small (2-3 cm) perennial fruit branches... Therefore, their older branches are also fruitful, i.e. The red currant bush does not require such frequent rejuvenating pruning as the black currant.
Currant pruning is carried out during the dormant period in late autumn or early spring.... Bushes form from 16-20 branches of different ages. 3-4 well-developed zero shoots are left annually. Weak old branches that have reached 7-8 years of age are cut out. Annual growths are not shortened; flower buds are located on their tops.
They start by removing branches that grow too far or too low, or that intersect with others, interfering with their growth. At the same time, try not to damage the ringlets - short (2-3 cm) twigs with buds: flower brushes will bloom from them in spring. Shorten the young shoots on the main branches by about half. Trim the shoots up and out of the bush... Sections with a diameter over 8 mm should be covered with pitch.
Red and white currant varieties
Early sweet. The bush is large, medium spreading. Berries weighing from 0.7 to 0.8 grams, dark red, good taste, ripen together, do not crumble for a long time when ripe. Productivity up to 6 kilograms per bush. The variety is winter-hardy, slightly affected by powdery mildew, unstable to anthracnose.
Yonkhir van Tete. The bush is strong, erect, very dense. The berries are large. Productivity - up to 4 kilograms per bush. The variety is resistant to powdery mildew, slightly affected by anthracnose.
Chulkovskaya. The bush is of medium height, semi-spreading. Berries in the country weighing an average of 0.8 grams, round, sometimes pear-shaped, red, with a transparent skin, juicy, tender, sweet-sour, very good taste with a pleasant combination of sugar and acid. This sweetness is already felt in unripe berries. They are very good for fresh consumption, but they are also used for making jellies, juices, and preserves. Productivity - more than 6 kilograms per bush. Medium ripening.
Versailles white. The bush is medium vigorous, medium spreading. The berries are large, weighing an average of 1.1 grams, round, yellowish, transparent. The taste of currant is sweet and sour refreshing, with a pleasant combination of acid and sugar. The berries are exceptionally good both fresh and for processing. The yield is high - up to 10 kilograms per bush. The variety is winter-hardy, relatively resistant to diseases and pests.
Dutch pink... The bush is medium-sized, erect, sparse. The berries are medium or large, weighing from 0.8 to 1.0 grams, beautiful pink, sweet and sour taste, do not crumble when ripe. Productivity - up to 5 kilograms per bush. The variety is affected by powdery mildew and anthracnose.
Varshevich. The bush is strong, powerful, tall, hardy, slightly spreading. Berries are medium to large, round or slightly compressed at the poles, dark purple, sweet and sour taste with a predominance of acid over sweetness. They are used mainly for processing. The yield is high - up to 6.3 kilograms per bush. Powdery mildew and anthracnose are noticeably affected only in years favorable for the spread of fungal diseases.
Dutch red. The bush is powerful, rather tall, dense, moderately spreading. Currant berries in the garden are medium-sized, round, red, with a transparent skin, juicy, sweet and sour taste, do not crumble when ripe, are used fresh and for processing. The yield is high - up to 7 kilograms per bush, but with good care, up to 15 kilograms can be harvested. The first harvest gives in the third year after planting, and at the time of full fruiting begins in the sixth-eighth years. The variety is affected by powdery mildew and anthracnose.
Promising varieties of red and white currants
White-fruited currant varieties ripen in July.
White Fairy (Diamond). A dense, slightly spreading, medium-sized bush yields up to 5 kg of berries. The variety is resistant to diseases, weakly affected by pests. The berries are medium-sized, transparent, very tasty.
Versailles white. The bush is medium in size, the yield is average - up to 3 kg, the variety is not very winter hardy and not resistant to anthracnose. The berries are medium in size, transparent, yellowish, tasty.
Yuterbogskaya. A medium-sized dense bush can yield up to 7–8 kg of berries. A variety of medium winter hardiness and medium resistance to fungal diseases. The berries are large, light cream, transparent, tasty.
Smolyaninovskaya. A vigorous, spreading, rare bush yields from 4 to 9 kg of berries. The variety is distinguished by its complex resistance to fungal diseases. The brush is long, the berries are rather large, white, transparent, with a pleasant taste. They remain on the bushes for a long time without losing their taste.
One of the simplest and most accessible ways of propagating currants for every amateur gardener is reproduction by lignified cuttings.... The undoubted advantage of this method is that it allows you to create new desired varieties in the garden without unnecessary trouble.
Cuttings for planting in the spring are harvested in October-November before the onset of severe frosts.
They are taken from annual shoots without any signs of disease.
Having chosen a healthy lignified shoot, a 25 cm long stalk is cut out of it. Leaves are carefully cut off from the cutting and both ends are dipped in melted garden varnish or paraffin so that it does not lose moisture during storage.
Before planting, cuttings are stored buried in the snow or in the refrigerator on a shelf under the freezer.
In the spring, cuttings are planted in specially prepared and fertilized beds, along the middle of which a 15 cm deep furrow is dug. Before planting, the lower end of the cuttings with garden varieties is cut with a sharp knife.
Cuttings are planted at a distance of 20 cm from each other. At the same time, only 1-2 cuttings buds are left on the surface, and at least 4 buds are left underground.
Sprinkle the cuttings with earth carefully so as not to damage the buds above and below the surface of the earth. The soil around the cuttings is compacted.
Then the beds are abundantly watered and mulched with fine peat or humus, which helps to retain moisture. To retain moisture, an old carpet runner is used.
When the cuttings are rooted, young plants can be transplanted to a permanent location.
Diseases and pests
The currant has a lot of enemies. They deprive us of crops and often spread diseases that are dangerous for currants.
For example, a kidney mite carries a viral disease - terry. To avoid it, you need to follow the general recommendations:
- Buy seedlings only from reliable producers.
- For propagation, take layers and cuttings of healthy plants.
- Choose varieties that are most resistant to pests and diseases.
- Regularly, carefully inspect the bushes. At the first sign of pests or diseases, take action immediately.
- A radical method of dealing with currant terry is the destruction of the bush.
A heavily affected bush must be cut to soil level. And over the next year, as the young shoots grow, treat the plant several times with acaricides, for example, neoron.
If red currants are damaged by leaf gall aphids, red swellings form on the upper side of the leaf. With severe damage, the leaves dry up and fall off, and the yield also decreases.
The yellow gooseberry sawfly eats leaves. Control methods - spraying with pesticides (preferably on the underside of the leaf).
Glass currant lays eggs in cracks and mechanical damage to the bark at the base of the shoots. The caterpillars that appeared two weeks later penetrate the branches and gnaw through the passages in the core. The only way to fight is to remove the damaged branches.
If red currants are damaged by powdery mildew, septoria and anthracnose, spraying will help, but they are usually effective only at the first signs of the disease.
Spores of fungal diseases overwinter on fallen leaves. Therefore, in the fall, it is necessary to remove plant residues from under the bushes, and in early spring, when the buds have not yet blossomed, spray the plants with a concentrated solution of mineral fertilizers (500 g of nitroammofoska or urea per 10 liters of water).
Diseases and pests of blackberries
This berry shrub is highly resistant to most diseases affecting other berry crops.Pests usually do not affect it either. However, experts recommend carrying out preventive spring and autumn treatments of this berry.
Also Do not plant Natchez brambles next to raspberry, strawberry, or nightshade plants.
Processing blackberries from insect pests - video
What is the difference between the red currant variety Marmalade from other varieties
Marmalade is a variety of red currant, which is a dense bush one and a half meters high. The name is derived from instant gelation, regardless of environmental conditions.
Ripening period - from 160 days. Bred at the research institute in the city of Oryol in connection with the crossing of two German varieties - Rote Spätlese, Maarsis Promenent. The patent for the invention was obtained by a citizen of the Russian Federation L.V. Bayanova. Active cultivation began in 1996.
Diseases and pests of red currant
This culture is very resistant to insects and diseases. But still, it does not have 100% immunity, therefore it is so important to know how to identify diseases and pests, how to deal with them.
- Anthracnose... Symptoms include the appearance of brown dots on the leaves, over which tubercles are subsequently formed. Currant leaves are deformed over time and begin to fall off. A solution of copper sulfate, which is sprayed not only on the plant, but also on the ground near the bush, helps to cope with the disease. It is necessary to treat in this way until the bud breaks.
But it is better to use effective preventive measures - spray the bush with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid every 2 weeks after flowering.
Spray the affected bushes with fungicides as a treatment. Better to use Alirin-B and Baktofit. All damaged shoots must be burned so that the disease does not spread further through the garden.
The defeat of leaves and berries with anthracnose
The manifestation of goblet rust on a currant leaf
The defeat of the bush with septoria
Most often, currants are affected by:
- narrow-bodied goldfish
- kidney moth.
If we talk about a narrow-bodied goldfish, then it is the larvae that cause harm to the bushes - they gnaw the shoots, trying to pave passages in them. The insects themselves appear around June, laying eggs in the shoots. The affected branches die over time, the berries become smaller, become stunted.
To avoid the death of red currants, it is necessary to cut off underdeveloped shoots during spring preparation and burn them. When pests appear, they must be destroyed. Also, it is better to treat the bushes with Actellik's solution 20-25 days after the end of flowering.
The caterpillars of the bud moth settle at the base of the bush. If you do not start the fight in time, the yield of plants will decrease, the bushes themselves will begin to wither. In the fight against this insect, you need to treat the bushes with Nitrofen, Karbofos or another insecticide during the period of bud swelling.